No 3 (2014)

Articles
Defining the dynamics of human functional state indices through structural linguistic analysis of brainwaves
Artemov S.I.
Abstract
This article presents a mathematical model of the human brain electroencephalogram signals and describes and justifies the application of the method based on the structural linguistic analysis of signals used to detect the human perception of weak single sound and visual stimuli. The method is justified through the results of psychophysiological research works. Electrophysiological brain signal can be converted in the amplitude phase patterns. Such conversion allows translating electrophysiological signal into a code sequence, which can be processed via structural linguistic methods. According to the dominant theory proposed by Ukhtomsky a brain signal is most pronounced when it is dominant for processing the current stimulus. Thus there is a change of code sequence parameters. Based on the dynamics of code sequence parameters, one can draw conclusions about the dynamics of human functional state indices. The article shows the results of processing of the experimental data using the method of structural linguistic analysis to detect human perception of weak single sound and visual stimuli. As a result of stimulus the entropy of code sequence decreases.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):3-5
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Modeling and analysing structural shifts in the Russian economy
Druzhinin P.V., Moroshkina M.V.
Abstract
The article considers the structure of the Russian economy by sectors (industry, regions and technological levels) and the dynamics of indicators characterizing the efficiency of the Russian economy. The major objective was to evaluate the way meso-level made an impact on the economic efficiency under study (labor productivity and fund flexibility). The authors have assessed the effectiveness of structural changes and the impact of particular sectors in the Russian economy, compared the actual and optimal economic structure, determined whether the actual structure of the Russian economy is approaching the optimum, defined the limitations and criteria for the optimal economic structure, clarified the existing models and built new models describing the connection between meso-level and macro-level, determining the connection between the indices of various levels and the impact of structural shifts and allowing to study the distribution of investments and other resources and develop the optimal distribution of such resources taking into account various criteria and limitations. Based on such models, the efficiency of Russian economy can be evaluated and the impact of various economy sectors, regions and technology levels on the labor efficiency and fund flexibility can be assessed. The authors have evaluated the impact of structural shifts, studied the criteria and limitations allowing the optimal structure of resource allocation correspond with the real structure. The results of analysis have showed that structural changes had a positive effect in the 90s and negative in the 2000s. In the 2000s the difference between real and optimal resource allocation dramatically increased, with the optimal allocation 100-105% more than the real one. The funds are focused in other branches of economy, such as trade. The overall structure of the Russian economy has become more distant from the optimum. In recent years, the proportion of inefficient sectors began to grow, and the efficiency of the Russian economy began to decline.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):6-13
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Data mining task of identifying EEG reactions to emotionally significant videos
Diuk V.A., Kravchik M.R., Senkevich Y.I.
Abstract
This empirical and statistical study is in line with the methodology of event-related potentials (ERPs) based on registration of bioelectrical brain responses to external stimulation or cognitive tasks (in the case of cognitive ERPs). The stimuli were videos with diverse emotionally rich content. Values of EEG periodogram under analysis were divided into three classes: «Eyes closed», «Relax» and «Emotions». The article shows that dynamic EEG range contain the information reflecting the effect of emotional impact the tested persons experience watching a number specially selected video clips. Data mining techniques allow locating such patterns in the dynamic EEG range that are much more frequent in case of visually emotional impact than the ones in case of emotionally neutral video clips. In order to determine which responses of test persons experience to videos with emotionally rich content it was enough to analyze the signal’s EEG with only one FP2 derivation. Apparently, additional analysis of signals’ EEG from other derivations will contribute to more rapid and accurate identification of emotional response. Test subject showed both common and individual reactions to videos with emotionally rich content. A distinctive EEG response at FP2 derivation was common to all test subjects. However, this reaction is less prominent for the tested female unlike male subjects. For a more precise test response in females, a combined indicator should be used, including counting the frequency of the informative pattern in the moving window of the dynamic range and calculating the average value in the window.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):14-20
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Using delegates as classes and functionals in terms as exemplified by the sorting algorithm
Kaziakhmedov T.B.
Abstract
This article describes the concept of delegates as classes and functional, as well as the basic notations of this technology, and give examples of using delegates in different notations, the codes being developed using Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):21-27
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Algorithm of correcting connections between fragments of poorly formalized information in storage and generation of new information
Kopyltsov A.A.
Abstract
The author has developed an algorithm for correcting the connections between fragments of poorly formalized information received from technical systems. It is assumed that the information comes to storage and it is characterized by a finite set of indicators. These indicators are convoluted and the convolution is a weighted sum with weight coefficients. Further the resulting convolution is compared with convolutions of fragments previously received pieces of information in the storage. If the Euclidean distance between the convolutions is less than a predetermined value ε, it is believed that these pieces of information are interconnected. The connections between pieces of information are considered and corrected in the storage, i.e. the fragments of information in storage which are interconnected with up to ε, up to 2 ε, up to 3 ε etc. are identified. Thus the connection level of the first, second, third and other orders is introduced. The information that some fragments of information are connected to each other can be regarded as new information, and this new information is determined by a set of indicators, which represents a union of indicators determining the initial pieces of information. One may consider a connectivity network of the first, second, third, etc. orders, i.e. a network with elements which are interconnected up to ε, up to 2 ε, up to 3 ε, etc. In some cases it is possible to determine the connection of pieces of information, i.e. which piece of information precedes the other or which fragment follows the other. This can be done as follows. If a piece of information number I1 is defined by some indicators, as a piece of information number I2 is determined by other indicators, and if all of the first indicators are characterized by earlier time parameters than all the second indicators, the piece of information number I1 precedes the piece of information number I2. However, it is not possible to conclude that the information number I1 results from information number I2 or vice versa. To the piece of information number I2 , defined by some set of indicators, result from the piece of information number I1 , defined by a different set of indicators, it is necessary that the piece of information number I2 must already contain the piece of information number I1 , i.e. the set of indicators defining I2 must be contained in the set of indicators defining I1 . This means that the piece of information number I1 already contains the fragment of information number I2, and therefore I2 can be obtained from I1 , i.e. I2 results from I1. An example of such pieces of information is considered. Let there be a piece of information number I1 , defined by some set of indicators consisting of k elements. Then this piece of information results in pieces of information, each of which is defined by a subset of the set consisting of k indicators. The following options are possible: the pieces of information defined by various combinations consisting of (k-1) indicators of the (k-2) indicators, ..., of 3 indicators, of 2 indicators, of 1 indicator. Moreover, similarly, each piece of information defined by (k-1) indicators results in pieces of information defined by a set of (k-2) indicators, ..., 3 indicators, by 2 indicators, by 1 indicator. Similarly it is for the pieces of information defined by (k-2), (k-3) and fewer indicators. In case of a piece of information defined by a set of indicators, consisting of 3 elements, this piece of information is followed by pieces of information, each of which is determined by various combinations consisting of 2 indicators and 1 indicator. In case of a piece of information defined by a set of indicators, which consists of 2 elements, then this piece of information is followed by pieces of information, each of which is defined by 1 indicator. Thus, an algorithm was developed to set a degree of connection of various pieces of information in storage, and this connection can be regarded as new information which can be processed further.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):28-34
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Generalized algorithm of processing poorly formalized information and its application
Kopyltsov A.A., Kopyltsov A.V.
Abstract
The authors have developed a generalized algorithm for processing poorly formalized information from technical systems which includes 14 stages. At the first stage the information from the technical system through a set of different sensors is collected in the module called “information gathering”. At the second stage the information comes from the module of “information gathering” to the module called “information recognition”, where it is identified. At the third stage the information comes from the module of “information recognition” to the module of “information classification”, where it is classified in n number of lasses K1, ... Ki ... Kn. The value of n is determined by a specific task. At the fourth stage the information delivered to each of n classes, is subjected to processing in the modules of “information convolution”, the processing being particular to each of those classes following a specific algorithm (convolution). At the fifth stage after convolution the accuracy of the information is assessed in the modules of “assessment of information accuracy”. At the sixth stage the security of the information is assessed in the modules of “assessment of information security” in each class by comparing it with the previously received information. At the seventh stage, the links between the newly acquired information in each class and the previously received information kept at the “storage” module are established. This is done in modules of “linkage”. At the eighth stage the credibility of the information received is assessed in each class in the modules “credibility assessment” with the use of probabilistic algorithm of estimating the performance of the monitoring system. At the ninth stage the decision-making is supported in each class in the modules of “decision-making support”. At the tenth stage the generated decisions from all classes are collected in the module of “generalized decision-making support”. At the eleventh stage the decision made is compared to the decisions made earlier in the module of “determination of the number of links”, which is performed by comparing the newly received information with the information kept in the module “storage”. At the twelfth stage a stable reaction to incoming information and its storage is developed in the module “development of stable reaction”, which is performed by comparing the incoming information with the information previously received and kept in the “storage” module. The thirteenth step the decision are generated in the module called “decision generation”. At the fourteenth stage new information is generated in the “storage” module on the basis of newly-recorded information and comparison with previously stored information. The information is checked for novelty. If the information is really new, it enters the module of “information gathering” for subsequent processing. By applying the generalized algorithm for processing poorly formalized information received from technical systems, we obtain the output recommendations to support decision-making. The final decision is made by the expert. The authors also offer an experimental assessment of the results exemplified by the dynamic equilibrium of a long rod, traffic security management, control of nonequilibrium chemical reaction of Belousov-Zhabotinsky. We consider a long cylindrical rod installed on a mobile platform. The cylinder loses balance and begins to fall. The task is to move the platform so that the cylinder would fall. It is assumed that the car has video and audio sensors of different range delivering the information about nearby obstacles. The task is to use the information to move the car so that it was not a collision with any obstacle. In studying the nonequilibrium chemical reactions at experimental facilities it is necessary to maintain the same temperature and concentration of chemical agents throughout the whole volume of the container where the reaction takes place. The task is to maintain a steady reaction process in the vessel.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):35-44
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Developing software for processing complex structured data of scientific experiment
Kosenko D.V., Voronova L.I., Voronov V.I.
Abstract
Computer experiment is one of the most significant tools today, especially in areas with a large gap between the theory and experiment. The field of physical chemistry and metallurgy is the most striking example among such areas. The goals of IMS «MD_SLAGMELT» project are to construct chemical processes, to extract properties and results, obtained during a computer experiment, and to provide a remote access to such results. The main purpose is the development of the methods of converting data from a text into a relational format during computer experiments, and the development of algorithms and tools they correspond for IMS «MD_SLAGMELT» project. As a result of the project conduction the following functional tasks have been implemented: - transferring of thermodynamic characteristics, energy parameters, kinetic coefficients of a computer experiment into the database; - checking *.DAT files for generation errors; - transferring the results of previous experiments into the database; - developing a report in *.xls; - forming a program for the current settings of the database. The developed software allows transferring complex structured data results of computer experiments in physical chemistry from the text format to the relational one for IMS «MD_SLAGMELT». The existing approaches to reading data from text files were presented, the optimal of which was selected, based on the conditions of the task specification software system, especially the storage format of the results. In addition, some other techniques were presented: transfer characteristics approach in a relational database,and a technique of debugging information in order to verify an integrity of the structure of final results of an experiment. During the application of “Processing program of complex-structured data for scientific experiment in IMS «MD_SLAGMELT»” software its functionality was tested on the main server of the project. The obtained results provide a higher level of IMS «MD_SLAGMELT» project automation, intermediate inspections of the output files’ formation standards and reports in the specified range of structures for the given temperature (dependence of the structure on the property).
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):45-52
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Assessing hydrodynamic resistence coefficient within energetic model of the human upper respiratory tract
Lukyanov G.N., Rassadina A.A.
Abstract
The article describes a model of energy transfer in human upper respiratory tract, for which we estimate the hydrodynamic drag coefficient. The internal cavity of the nose represents a system of series- and parallel- connected channels. While modeling, we assumed the following points: (1) separation of central flow of inhaled air (hereinafter referred to as a stream filament) into four streams within nasal vestibule; (2) central distribution of stream filaments into communis, superior, medius, and inferior nasal meatus; (3) merging of the stream filaments into one in the choanae; (4) repetition of the pattern of redistribution of stream filaments under the reverse movement of air from choanae to the nasal vestibule. During the modeling of air flows inside the full-scale model of the nose the air flow velocity rate, which is necessary to calculate hydrodynamic drag coefficient, was determined for different parts of the nasal cavities, namely - nasal vestibule, choanae, superior, medius, inferior and communis nasal meatus. Full-scale model of the nose sinus was made of epoxy. For measuring velocity of air flow miniature bead heat-loss anemometers were placed inside the model: in the nasal vestibule, communis, superior, medius and inferior nasal meatus and choanae. The model’s energy transfer is based on the law of conservation for steady incompressible fluid flows (Bernoulli's equation) and Kirchhoff's rules. Solution of the Bernoulli's equation is founded on the following assumptions: (1) mass refers to the volume of a separate stream filament, and, since the density of the air as it moves inside the volume does not change, it can be considered identical in sections 1-1 (nasal vestibule) and 2-2 (choanae); (2) the share of the potential energy was not considered inside the nasal meatus due to the small size of the model; (3) the quantity of heat supplied to a unit mass in each section depends on the temperature of the heated walls, which is constant in the entire nasal cavity, therefore it is assumed that E heat 1= E heat 2 and is not considered in further calculations; (4) air flow velocity is maximum in the center of the flow, hence, due to the location of anemometer in this area, the maximum surface velocity and time velocity would coincide, causing the average surface integral of velocity change within the section can be replaced by time averaging; (5) because the density of the medium is constant, kinetic energy can be taken outside the integral sign; (6) air temperature inside the model can be considered approximately the same and equal to the temperature of the medium, then the values of the internal energy in sections 1-1 and 2-2 can be regarded as the same and not considered in the calculation of the hydrodynamic resistance coefficient; (7) the static pressure in the cross section depends on the air flow velocity, therefore, it as the velocity can be taken as an average value. The simulation results showed that: (1) during an intake of breath, hydrodynamic resistance coefficient was the lowest for the superior and inferior nasal meatus and was maximal in the communis and medius nasal meatus; (2) during exhalation the value of hydrodynamic resistance coefficient decreases because of the air movement in the communis and medius nasal meatus.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):53-59
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Developing the ontology fragment for the multi-agent moderation system of users’ posts
Okhapkina E.P., Voronova L.I.
Abstract
Social networks have become a part of our modern life. They are easy to use and versatile, which helps to attract more and more people every day. However, along with the obvious benefits social networks pose a number of problems. One of these problems is the open access publication of provocative and anti-social posts used to influence the public. Often such posts contain calls for ethnic discord, anti-social activities, promotion of violence, and radical religious views. As a rule, the moderation of posts in social networks is reduced to the search for spam, flooding, off-topic posts and comments, usually containing advertising. Due to the exponential growth of the data posted by users the automated moderation process has become an urgent problem. Both foreign and domestic developers are involved in active research to solve this problem. The authors suggest using the technology of multi-agent systems (MAS) and software agents to build a system for monitoring users' posts on the Internet in order to identify security threats. At the same time, an independent task is to develop thematic ontologies containing a description of threats in the selected domain. This article describes a conceptual model of multi-agent system for users’ posts moderation and a structure of MAS ontology used as a basis for a fragment of ontology describing the type and direction of security threats. The ontology is a description of a partially ordered set of concepts to be used by agents detecting security threats. Each agent specialty is reflected through a subset of concepts, some of which may be shared by several agents. The described fragment of ontology allows agents to use one and same terms in the communication process and clearly perceive working terminology. The authors have chosen Protégé ontology editor as a tool for developing the ontology and OWL language as a modeling technique. It is shown that the use of agent-based approach greatly simplifies software design, because it enables working with data as knowledge, taking into account the context through the use of ontologies.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):60-67
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Developing a recommender system based on the social network «VKontakte» profile data
Avkhadeev B.R., Voronova L.I., Okhapkina E.P.
Abstract
The following article considers the problem of web-surfing automation and content filtration. The principal objective of this project is to develop a software solution to this problem - a multi-agent system for analyzing VKontakte users’ interests - and providing a recommendation system EZSurf. The article describes the development and application of a multi-agent recommender system EZSurf that performs analysis of interests and provides recommendations for the social network VKontakte users based on the data from the profile of a particular user. The article also provides an analysis of different methods, technological solutions, and similar products aimed at content filtration, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. EZSurf allows automating the web-surfing process and content filtration with the use of user’s profile in a particular social network to collect data and API of external services (LastFM, TheMovieDB). For search and selection of information an agent (Recommender) that works as web-crawler has been implemented. Such an approach contributes to optimization of the recommender system, because it does not require creation of its own object classification system and objects database. The functionality of multi-agent system was separated between three agents. The first agent (Collector) collects user data from “VKontakte” profile using VK API. The second agent (Analyzer) collects similar objects from databases of external services (LastFM, TheMovieDB) that will be the criteria for further search of recommendatory content. The third agent (Recommender) based on the principle of a search robot is used for searching content. System «EZSurf» can be exploited by the users of social network “VKontakte” in everyday life to save time on web-surfing. At the same time the users will get recommendations on the content filtered depending on preferences of every particular user. The system can be further developed. There are several ways for its evolution: extension of sites registry, usage of other data from profile in addition, optimization of the algorithm for web-pages indexing and content parsing (Recommender), data collection from the several social networks.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):68-76
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Mathematical study of some aspects of migration
Urazaeva L.Y., Galimov I.A.
Abstract
This scientific paper is devoted to the mathematical study of certain aspects of population migration. The study of migration is very important in the conditions of an ageing population. The rate of migration depends on the difference between living standards and wages in the place of residence and the place of migration. The success of migration is determined by deliberate choice and certain personal connections or ethnic expat communities in the area of migration. Certain attention is paid to the issue of interregional migration in Russia. The authors use the methods of quantitative data analysis and investigate the relationship between socio-economic indicators of calculations performed using official data from the website of the Russian Federal Statistics Service. Methods of correlation and regression analysis were at work. Scientific and practical significance of the results is determined by the ability to control the natural processes of interregional migration. The authors reviewed and identified the relationship between the number of migrants and the most important socio-economic indicators of the regions attractive for migrants. Migrants prefer Moscow, St. Petersburg, Russia, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District of Yugra. Many migrants worked in construction of sports and other facilities in Sochi during the preparation for the Winter Olympic Games 2014. Growth of income is a positive aspect of migration. Negative aspects are the need to purchase or rent housing, settlement expenses, increased food and transport expenses, costs of communication (keeping contact with relatives and friends in another region). Such issues as “efficient” migration, justification of migration for certain categories of migrants, migration risks require a separate research. The article also considers the relationships between economic activity and the rate of migration growth for attractive from the point of view of migration regions. Moscow region is the most attractive region for migration in Russia. It has a maximum coefficient of migration growth per 10 000 populations. There is quite a close significant linear direct correlation between the level of economic activity and the rate of migration growth. Migrants in Russia tend to move to the regions with relatively high level of economic activity and high income level per capita. The choices of migrants are influenced by climate, the demand for labor force in the region, future prospects for further living. The research results include mathematical understanding of regularities between the individual socio-economic indicators of migration and analysis of the obtained regularities. The authors establish a fairly close significant (α=0.0083) line direct correlation between the migration growth coefficient and level of economic activity. The paper also examines the impact of migration growth coefficient on the average age of the employed population in the regions attractive for migration. The rejuvenating effect of migration is not revealed, which can be explained by the fact that prosperous regions offer jobs for both young and elderly people, and therefore migration makes no significant impact on the average age of the employed. Based on these data, it can be argued that the increase of migration leads to a decline of average monthly wage. Migrants prefer regions with low unemployment rates and high population density.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):77-85
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Mathematical modeling of local regulation of blood flow
Cekhanovskiy V.V., Chertovsky V.D.
Abstract
At the initial stage of their development the adaptive automated production control systems (AAPCS) were virtually static systems. With the transition to the market the dynamics of the environment increased dramatically, resulting in a need for quick transition to new products. A new class of adaptive systems with a changing purpose of procedure functioning appeared. They required mathematical description, which was almost absent before, taking into account the specifics of these systems. To develop such a description the authors have proposed a scheme based on the methods of systems analysis. The peculiarity lies in the development of a uniform method for describing diverse planning and management processes. The authors have developed the requirements for such mathematical description of planning and management the production control system with a three-level structure, as well as analyzed the methods, which showed the absence of systemic description methods. In this regard, the system method were developed from local methods, which included static linear programming, dynamic linear programming, and linear quadratic optimization. The interaction of targeted structural elements of the system manifested itself in the coordination of economic and dynamic properties. The paper presents a fairly simple procedure of matching the economic interests of elements horizontally, vertically, and elements of the system as a whole. The authors mark the specific feature of organizational systems associated with the uncertainty of information, which leads to the need to use two stages of modeling: simulation and optimization. The research clarifies the vector property to assess management process and defines the dynamic properties of three-level system. The interaction between the elements of the management process is determined by economic and dynamic properties. The economic properties are characterized by the procedure of coordinating economic interests of the structural elements, which is similar to the procedure of the integral method. The paper defines the vector dynamic property consisting, unlike the integral method, of two properties: non-oscillatory transient process; zero steady-state error tracking. The dynamic properties of three-level system can be conveniently studied using computer simulation. The results of experimental work are associated with the operational test of theoretical theses concerning the problems of small dimension. Further continuation of the programming associated with the implementation of the interaction of the structural elements of multilevel AAPCS. At the same time the paper considers a system technology for developing such systems and the requirements for describing the methods and mathematical model of three-level AAPCS, analyses local description methods, and proposes global mathematical methods for researching AAPCS. Together with the methods of mathematical description of planning and management of specific production control system with a three-level structure, the authors have developed the requirements which take into account the system’s features and various informal aspects serving as a basis for the analysis of local methods. Such analysis revealed the absence of systemic method descriptions. The article contains an analysis of local methods suitable for developing the system methods of mathematical description.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(3):86-95
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