No 4 (2014)

Articles
Contextual synonyms as a stylistic expressive means in Vladimir Mazin’s poetry
Belkova A.E.
Abstract
Lexical categories and their stylistic features used in modern literary works are a most valuable lexical resource for linguistic research. One of the current problems in this area is the linguistic understanding of contextual synonyms of the modern Russian language. This study deals with contextual synonyms as a stylistic expressive means in the poetry of Vladimir Mazin, a modern poet of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area Yugra. Contextual synonyms used in the works of Vladimir Mazin have not been a subject of special scientific research yet, though his poetic texts contain a lot of material for the study. This article particularly concerns the poems of Vladimir Mazin published within the period of 1967-2001. In terms of theory and methodology, the study is based on lexicological and stylistic research of Russian linguists, including V.V.Vinogradov, N.M.Shansky, A.P.Еvgenyeva, I.B.Golub, M.N.Kozhina, V.A.Beloshapkova, M.F.Palevsky and others. The basic research method is contextual analysis considering the impact of context on the meaning of synonyms. The research has a certain theoretical and practical significance, as its results can be used in lectures and practical classes of lexicology and speech culture aimed at the development of associative thinking and synonymous relations among schoolchildren and college students. The analysis has showed that the contextual synonymization is based on individual intent of the poet and the nature of his poetic language. The distinguishing features of Mazin’s contextual synonyms include apparent contextual causality and fixity; unstable and non-normative use of synonyms; absence of these words in dictionaries of synonyms. Lexical synonyms used by Mazin in his literary works clearly reveal their defining characteristics and purpose. They serve as a means of representing an object in a multidimensional way, as a means of communication “setting” and as one of the clearest expressive means.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):3-9
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Structure and methods of desingning a social reality in the media discoursE (subject area of "immigration")
Vikulova L.G., Serebrennikova E.F.
Abstract
This article is devoted to the methods of designing a social reality in the media discourse. In the line with the theoretical problems of the language social role in the information society, the article raises the question about the structure and methods of designing the meanings of public interest in the “centers of social tension”, which include the social reality of labor migration in modern Russia. The authors argue that media texts monitor the current status of this social phenomenon and set cognitive reflective and evaluative structures in the process of mediatization of the thematic content. The basic research techniques used in the study include content analysis, interpretative analysis, cognitive modeling. The authors develop an idea that media discourse of social reality in mass media communication coordinates acquires axiological orientation, presenting itself as a grid of values and value guidance used to determine the discourse identity of the public addressee. In this regard, the axiological polyphony and polarity of the subject area are revealed where the types of content elements act as carriers of dominant general meanings - attractors representing the structures of understanding and evaluating the objects of mediatization of the social tension center. The prospect of further analysis lies in line with the identifying the strategic and technological character of this type of social discourse. The results of the study can be used in scientific research of media and social discourse. The materials and conclusions can also be used in the educational activities, such as educational courses of communication theory, discourse analysis, intercultural communication.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):10-16
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Simulation of intention «the fight for power» in political discourse
Dyachenko I.A.
Abstract
The given paper is concerned with the simulative strategies of the language personality in political discourse. The object of the study is the discourse of B.Dole, Republican presidential candidate of 1996. The subject of the study is the simulative strategies used by the politician. The main goal of the study is to identify the communicative strategies used to simulate the intention «the fight for power» in political discourse and to describe the linguistic means of their realization. The following linguistic methods are used: interpretative method, the method of definition analysis, the method of pragmalinguistic analysis, the methods of logical-rhetoric and semantic analyses, terminological apparatus of speech acts theory. The paper claims the idea that in some cases the main intention of political discourse, the fight for power, is simulated. The simulation of the intention «the fight for power» has a strategic character. On the basis of D.Crystall’s theoretical views on the motives underlying nonprototipical questions that are often asked in the process of political confrontation, the following strategies have been described - to get an opponent into trouble, to focus public attention on the advantageous issue, to express solidarity with the Republican party line. The language means of realization of these strategies are indirect directive speech acts, assertive speech acts with quantifiers, words with negative connotations, allusive references to the American values and the values of the Republican party. The results and materials of the study can be used in the sphere of scientific research and education. The methodology of describing the simulative strategies used in the paper can be employed in studying analogous communicative strategies used in the discourses of other politicians. The materials can also be used in developing and teaching the courses in intercultural communication, the theory of communication, text interpretation, discourse analysis.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):16-21
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To the problem of interdiscursivity of «sports announcement» type of text (based on the german-language texts)
Zharkova U.A.
Abstract
The study is devoted to the phenomenon of interdiscursivity within the media space and is conducted on the basis of German-language texts of sports announcements. The aim of the study is to validate the interdiscourse nature of media text integrating the features of journalistic, advertising and PR-discourses. The study is based on methodology of discourse analysis, which assumes typology of discourse and study of the main discursive strategies taking into account the relevant features of the type of discourse. The study observes that massive media communication leads to a blurring of the boundaries between the separate communicative spaces, which leads to the emergence of interdiscursivity phenomenon. Interdiscursivity is broadly understood as interpenetration of discourses, the interaction of different knowledge systems and cultural codes. Interdiscursivity can be seen as the interaction of artistic discourse with different discourses and sign systems. Interdiscursivity in semiotic sense is regarded as a form of interaction of different discourses of various semiotic natures, which leads to the creation of synthetic texts, as well as it is a mechanism for their reception. Journalistic, advertising, PR-types of media discourse are compared by the nature of exposure to the recipient, the nature of the audience, the peculiarities of information presentation, the final aim and the expected effect of information, the means of exposure, the type of authorship, and the type of speech influence. The principle of discourses interpenetration laying in the basis of interdiscursivity theory determines the consideration of integrative nature of certain media genres, in particular one of the types of texts with a strong pragmatic nature, that is a sports announcement. The global strategy determining the specific character of the "sports announcement" text type in all types of considered media discourse is the information strategy. In journalistic discourse it is news, which is aimed to satisfy the curiosity of the reader. In advertising discourse information about event availability as a commodity and its characteristics is offered, and this information is reported to draw attention to the subject of advertising, to ensure the participation of the recipient in the event advertised. In PR-discourse it is information in reception of which by the recipient the PR-text customer is interested in, in order to improve the image of the company organizing the sports tournament. Using of the announcement of the specialized verbal means in the text provides the implementation of strategies of different discourse types, in particular, elatives in contexts mentioning the event organizer embody self-positioning strategy, characteristic of PR-discourse. Using special sports vocabulary restricts the target audience which is pragmatically typical of an advertising discourse. The analysis conducted shows that interdiscursivity can be understood as the integration of communicative-pragmatic features within a single type of media text. The text of the sports announcement is one of interdiscursive media genres embodying features of journalistic, advertising and PR-discourses at the level of verbalization of speech influence strategies: awareness, reasoning, self-positioning, evaluation formation. The main conclusions of the study can be used in theoretical and applied genre studies and in PR and advertising campaigns in practice.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):21-29
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Contact establishing tactics in russian speaking, kazakh speaking and english speaking trial discourse
Nefedova L.A., Nikiforova E.S.
Abstract
Close attention to speech behavior in the sphere of professional communication presupposes noticeable interest in individual and social aspects of a speaker’s conduct in the field of legal activities. In the present article the authors treat contact establishing tactics as an inalienable part of emotional influence strategy in Russian, Kazakh and American trial discourse. It should be mentioned that the influence of ethnic and cultural factors on differences of speech behavior of professional participants of Russian, Kazakh and American trial discourses has not been studied thoroughly enough yet. The present research is characterized by a wish to identify the dependency of speech behavior on trial discourse professional participants (the choice of communicative tactics within basic communicative strategies) of their social roles, as well as on the peculiarities of ethnic mentality of the treated linguistic cultures’ representatives. While conducting the research the achievements of Linguistic Conflict Study, Social Linguistics, Interpretation Theory, Speech Acts Theory, as well as Jurisprudence, Communication Study and Cognition Science have been integrated. Within the frames of a complex approach to the study of trial communication there were singled out and described earlier not systematized in the Theory of the Language from comparative angle tactics of communicative influence of trial discourse’ professional participants (prosecutors and defense lawyers) of Russian, Kazakh and American linguistic cultures; there were defined linguistic, stylistic and rhetorical devices and means constituting them, ethnic and cultural specificity of speech behavior of the representatives of the taken linguistic cultures in the field of trial communication was also detected. The following methods of research were used: hypothetical and inductive, descriptive, introspective, interpretative, contextual and functional comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis, linguistic patterns’ analysis. Among the main results and inferences the following ones should be mentioned: 1. Variability and flexibility in building up communicative strategies is achieved by means of a definite set of communicative tactics, the choice of which is predetermined by communicative intentions and communicative situation. 2. Ethnic and cultural peculiarities of trial discourse can be defined in the course of the analysis of the set and frequency of the use of communicative tactics within realization of basic communicative strategies by its participants. Contact establishing tactics within the frames of emotional influence strategy in particular are differentiated by a number of isomorphic and allomorphic features in the studied linguistic cultures, which is illustrated in the article. The accuracy of the results is confirmed by the volume of chosen for analysis patterns as well as profound analysis of the data. The research data is represented by trial notes of attorneys for defense and prosecution speeches at 17 trials in Russian, Kazakh and American courts, the data refers to the period of 1995-2012.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):29-40
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Metaphor in academic discourse - understanding texts and subjectiveness of linguistic analysis
Fetisov A.Y.
Abstract
A research on metaphors found in academic discourse implies the necessity of the development of metaphor identification criteria. Metaphor cannot be discussed adequately without understanding its connections with a wider text material, and this fact leads to a deeper problem - subjectiveness of linguistic/discourse analysis. Academic discourse, taken as a material of the research, is considered to be lacking figurative expressions, however, metaphors in this type of text often occur. The identification of an expression as metaphoric reveals itself as a problem of understanding the text. Arguing that academic texts in any given case contain metaphors, we mean that there is an expression which, in our opinion, is a metaphorical entity. However, when studying academic texts, it is quite difficult to define a metaphoric expression, which means there is a problem of understanding the metaphor. The specifics of text material, such asstyle, affect the identification of metaphors occurring within. Along with the criterion of truth , the principle of identifying the metaphors using dictionaries would be a sufficient basis for identifying a metaphor in academinc texts. The base of the truth would highlight the transfer of meaning (non-literal use of language means), and using a dictionary we could fix the identification of a metaphor by identifying the source of transfer. A linguist recipient is characterized by all the same features that are inherent to any other recipient, in particular, the inevitable inadequacy of understanding. However, understanding is a goal by itself, which a linguist is achieving through interpretative (linguistic) analysis. A linguist researcher is aware of its subjective features and he or she depends on them, as one has to develop a system of criteria leading to the “objective scientific character” of the study. The criterion of truth conditions of utterance combined with the lexicographic analysis proves to be relevant and sufficient. If the discourse analysis takes into account the unity of the theme field, and is based on a system of relevant identification criteria, the results can be viewed as consistent, and subjectiveness of such analysis appears to be ignorable.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):41-48
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Conceptual and expressive originality of A.M.Remisov’s «Sisters of the Cross» in his art and literary traditions aspects
Krivosheya N.A.
Abstract
The article provides the analysis of conceptual and expressive means used by A.M.Remisov in his “Sisters of the Cross” within the aspect of his art and literary traditions. Exploring the text with the use of hermeneutic, comparative, historical, typological, cultural, biographic methods and elements of complete system analysis allowed discovering the author’s unique art style and world view. The plot of the story is interpretation of author’s life and his opinion about tragic human destiny determined by the supreme forces. The existential tragedy of human life is caused by the fact the major characters are alien, indifferent to each other, which produced the author's mythological belief that “man is a log to man” and that there is only one escape from a human life, and that is death. This is the artistic idea of the story following the set of author’s question whether it is possible to overcome the tragedy of human destiny). The main opposition of the novel is the images of a “low-ranker” Marakulin and a countrywoman Akumovna. Using these images A.M.Remizov embodied his vision of the fate the whole Russia had on the threshold of disaster, i.e. revolution. Critics and writer’s friends praised the story, noting its melodiousness, symphony composition, rich language, and truthful images of characters. The author could combine folklore element (Vera Nicolaevna’s songs), dreams (prophetic dreams, Akumovna’s irrational world dreams), his opinion of contemporary ideas (particularly, F.M.Dostoevsky’s, V.Khlebnikov’s), transformed literary traditions (for example, destinies of Moscow and Petersburg), which makes the story an international literary masterpiece.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):49-56
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V. Mayakovsky by lifetime and postumous foreign press
Kultysheva O.M.
Abstract
Vladimir Mayakovsky was a well-known figure for foreign journalists. His craving for everything “stoverst” prompted his need to expand the “KomFut” ideas to “out-of-soviet” space, while his romantic worldview has set a landmark goal in building a bright future, that is, to get the “new word” across to the “inveterate capitalists”. Considering this, in 1922-1924 Vladimir Mayakovsky went abroad to Latvia (up to 1940 Latvia was not in the Soviet Union), France (Paris) and Germany (Berlin). After his first international trips Mayakovsky wrote essays and poems based on his European impressions (“How does a democratic republic work?” (1922), “Paris (Talks with the Eiffel Tower)” (1923)). Mayakovsky went to Paris several times more in the period of 1925-1929, and he would always reflect his trips and impressions in his verse (such as lyrical cycle “Paris” (1924-1925). In 1925 Mayakovsky’s interest in engaging the reader's attention went further than Europe, as he traveled across to America to perform in public. The international trips aroused his interest in foreign life. Mayakovsky was admired by the engineering and architectural achievements he saw in the USA (see “Brooklyn Bridge” (1925)). However, as the poet wished to detect the discrepancies between the luxury of European and American capitals and the daily life of the common workers, he criticized the capitalist system, which he opposed to the “fair regime” of the young socialist state of the USSR. In his public speeches Mayakovsky did not miss a chance to express his beliefs and rejection of the western public institutions which, in his opinion, made human life miserable. Such an open confronting position of the Russian poet resulted in a strong reaction in foreign press. The following article considers the responses to Mayakovsky’s creative works and personality reflected in lifetime and posthumous foreign press. The journalist works can be contingently divided into three groups: 1) hostile right-wing press, 2) “moderate” journalism perceiving the poet in “cheap popular” light, 3) left-wing press welcoming the Soviet Union and the Soviet poet. The article is aimed at determining the overall “tone” of the foreign press writing about Mayakovsky. The cultural, historical and comparative analysis in notes and columns of foreign newspapers and magazines dedicated to Mayakovsky’s life, works and suicide, occupies an important place in the presented study. It is noted that this kind of sensational and conflicting notes distorting the real facts appeared on the pages in both the left-wing and right-wing press and can be considered as a demonstration of outrageously superficial international perception of Mayakovsky’s life and work.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):57-62
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Intertextuality as aspect in the interpretation of literary works: the problem statement
Lagoda M.A.
Abstract
The subject of research in this paper is intertextuality in literature texts as one of the aspects of the reading event. The purpose of this article is to outline the methodological guidelines to adequately raise the question of the role of “intertextual” relationships in the act of interpretation. The attempt is made to provide typology of existing approaches to the above problem. Methodological “poles” are found in the very origin of the term “intertextuality”, proposed by J.Kristeva in 1967, a term that sprang from her interpretation of M.M.Bakhtin's ideas on dialogue. Therefore, considerable attention is paid to the relationship between the concepts of “intertextuality” and “dialogue”, to the clarification the meaning of one concept replacement with another in the work of J.Kristeva. An attempt is made to interpret these concepts in the contexts of the works of these researchers, in the writings of R.Barthes, as well as in the works of some of the commentators . A comparative analysis of the concepts of “foreign” words in M.M.Bakhtin and J.Kristeva has been conducted. The comparison show that the concept of “intertextuality” is a “translation” of the concept of “dialogue” to a “language” of fundamentally different methodology. The reference to the “historical episode” of the emergence of the concept “intertextuality” allows us to identify the existing range of diverging interpretations of the understanding of the phenomenon of “intertextual” relationships. One of the limits of understanding is related to the linguistic nature of the literary text and involves the practice of “open” reading, emphasis on the text’s external relations and the “deciphering” of quotes. Another limit deals with dialogical, personal nature of a literary work and emphasizes the value-semantic integrity of a “polyphonic” literary expression. This allows one to raise a question of intertextuality as an aspect of understanding the unique artistic whole, influenced by life and cultural context.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):62-71
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I.Shmelyov’s poetic novel “The summer of the lord” as an encyclopedia of russian orthodox holidays
Lysenko L.A.
Abstract
Ivan Shmelyov is a firmly religious, truly Orthodox writer. The writer’s religiosity was can be attributed to three main reasons. First, he was brought up in a patriarchal family in the spirit of the Orthodox traditions. Second, he married a religious woman. And third, he had a pure Orthodox attitude towards the excesses of the revolutionary period and the death of his only son Sergei. This article analyses Shmelyov’s prose poem “The Summer of the Lord” and the way Russian Orthodox holidays and related traditions are reflected in the poem. The overall purpose of the analysis is to prove that Shmelyov’s novel can be interpreted and used as an encyclopedia of Orthodox holidays. This literary work, being the quintessence of Shmelyov’s creativity, is based on the writer’s childhood experience of the Russian patriarchal society. Using his childhood experience, the author shows the beauty of Russian Orthodoxy, its value for a particular family and for society as a whole. The chapters of “The Summer of the Lord” - “Holidays”, “Joys”, “Sorrows” are organized within the annual circle and church calendar. Using the stories from his childhood, Shmelyov tells the reader how this calendar defines the entire family life reflected in three major aspects, such as the house, the church, and Moscow. At first glance, the chapters of “Holidays” and “Joys” repeat each other, as they tell about Christmas and Lent. However, the “Joys” are much more “personal”, autobiographical. The former chapter deals with national holidays, the latter tells the reader about family events and about the inner world of a little boy, about his thoughts, feelings, experiences, relationships, especially about the relationship with his father who becomes the protagonist of the novel. That’s why the writer devoted two chapters to the father’s life, such as “Nameday”, a chapter about father’s holiday, and “Sorrows”, a chapter about his illness, death, and funeral. Using biographical, cultural, historical, and hermeneutical methods and elements of the system analysis, the author of this study argues that Shmelyov’s novel describing a range of religious holidays in detail may be used as an encyclopedia of Orthodox holidays for teaching the course of “Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture” in schools.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):71-76
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Using information communication technology in foreign language teaching
Brezgina O.V.
Abstract
Recently, the importance of using information communication technologies in higher education has increased dramatically. Many empirical and theoretic researches have been cdevoted to determining the effectiveness of information communication. The present article deals with the issues of using information communication technologies for increasing students’ motivation, improving foreign language teaching, making student’s independent work more efficient, and diversifying the forms and types of activities. The aim of the study is to analyse the educational experience to date and reveal the contradiction between potential and real opportunities offered by information communication technologies (ICT). The author has used general theoretic methods, as well as methods of studying and generalizing the existing educational experience. As results of the study, the author shows the role and place of ICT in the education process, didactic methods in combination with the given technology and the possible disadvantages of its usage. The author denominates the necessary conditions for efficient application of information communication technology, including the ways of raising the level of the teacher’s competence. The proposed material is intended for teachers and may contribute to the successful application of modern educational technologies.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):77-80
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Subtitled films as didactic aid in foreign language learning
Ziyazova I.R.
Abstract
The author examines subtitled films as a didactic aid in language learning. The aim is to characterize subtitled films as a didactic material and to determine their usability and effectiveness. The applied research methods include general theory methods such as fact finding, analysis, classification, and deduction. The study describes the types of subtitles and briefly characterizes the work with each type accordingly. It is stated that interlingual subtitles are more efficient for beginners, whereas intralingual subtitles are considered of more appropriate and efficient use for upper-intermediate and advanced learners. Bilingual subtitles in language learning are yet to be studied. The general merits and demerits of subtitling in foreign language learning are analysed. Intentional and unintentional ways of foreign language learning are briefly presented. The conclusion is that watching subtitled films for language learning is multitasking. Multitasking fosters learning and memorizing which explains why subtitled films are supereffective didactic materials.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):81-85
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System of problem-based assignments in teaching foreign languages as a means of developing axiological competence of students
Samsonova N.V.
Abstract
The study considers problem-based assignments of spiritual and cognitive characters contributing to the development of axiological competence of students learning a foreign language. The undertaken analysis is aimed at justifying the objective necessity of including the axiological competence into key competences developed during the educational process, and the possibility of developing such a competence within the problem-based training of a foreign language, where problematic assignments of spiritual and cognitive character can be the means of creating the axiological competence. The analysis has shown that the axiological competence provides for the mechanism for self-identity and preconditions the educational trajectory of an individual and his or her life program as a whole. This competence is manifested in actions, attitudes, and activities of an individual. The author has identified the relation between the content of the competence with the content of general personal culture and distinguished the characteristics and skills of the axiological competence. The article reveals the educational potential of problem-based training of a foreign language manifesting itself in three aspects, such as developing a culture of thinking, a culture of communication and a culture of a value-based attitude to reality. The study also considers a system of problem-based assignments and tasks when working with texts with axiological problems. The author proves that the discussion of topical spiritual and cognitive problems in the process of learning a foreign language helps to develop axiological competence and general culture of a student. The system of problem-based assignments can be used in teaching the German language.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):85-92
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Fit XXth world congress 2014
Tamminiemi E.
Abstract
Overview of the proceedings of the XX th World Congress International Federation of Translators «Man vs machine - the future of translators, interpreters and terminologists», which took place in Freie Universität Berlin in August 4-6, 201
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2014;(4):93-95
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