No 2 (2015)

Articles
Methods of presenting knowledge when solving practical pedagogical problems
Afanasyev V.V., Afanasyeva I.V.
Abstract
The paper considers scheme, semantic, and expert-logic methods of knowledge representation when solving practical pedagogical problems and issues directly associated with the subject of teaching practice. The problems under consideration can be approached using objective, subjective, system, technological and many other ways available to a particular teacher. Underestimating the rationalistic standards of the objective approach can lead to serious misconceptions in both theory of teaching practice and pedagogic facts. A relatively subjective nature of the considered methods suggests that they may be successfully applied under certain reservations only, since the result is dependent on handling these methods, availability of required knowledge, its productivity and quality. The paper describes the content and application algorithm of methods used to solve a problem and suggests correctness criteria and classification base for each of the above methods. The authors also provide classification examples and brief recommendations on using the methods for solving practical problems. In case of every method, scientific knowledge and experience of practical professionals are the major components. The method is applied in two stages: first, original justification is developed, which is considered valid in case all allegations are not contradictory and no controversy appears when a new statement is introduced; secondly, the experts attempt to find out the real unreliability causes. Such refinements reduce the reliability of the existing justification as long until the local unreliability causes become prominent. In other words, the method allows identifying the sources and causes for mistakes on the one hand or, on the other hand, increasing the confidence in the reliability of the original justification.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):3-9
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Evaluating the competence of students mastering the course in Theories and technologies of artistic and aesthetic education in primary school
Zhmakina N.L.
Abstract
The paper describes the content modules of the course in Theories and Technologies of Artistic and Aesthetic Education in Primary School and characterizes the evaluation forms used to determine the level of student competences on the subject studied within the program 050100.62 Pedagogical Education (Primary Education). The paper also contains the examples of different test for each module, such as matching tasks, closed form tasks, sequencing tasks, open form tasks. The author describes the test evaluation technology and introduces the topics and structure of student reports. The evaluation sheet allows the teachers to assess the quality of the student work according to the criteria, with particular attention to student summaries of classes in Fine Art and analysis of student projects. Initially, students study the course program and learn to write notes using a tabular format. A class analysis scheme contains three groups of questions, such as target, structural, and methodical questions. Each question is specified through additional questions during the class discussion. In addition to summaries, students design summaries of extracurricular activities on Fine Arts, as well as the working programs of basic and elective courses.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):9-16
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Using task approach for developing the ability of future teachers to solve professional problems based on the analysis of pedagogical situations
Petrova G.A.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to using a task approach as a technological basis for developing the professional ability of future teachers to solve professional problems basing on the analysis of pedagogical situations. Considering the increasing social demand for young teachers, the purpose the university training is reconsidered and subjects of the pedagogical cycle are reoriented toward active learning. Active learning technologies are expanded through creative activities of teachers and students (simulating activities, role-playing and business games, training activities). The studied materials are of certain practical importance, since the program curricula under analysis includes a workshop course in solving professional problems. Simulating typical pedagogical situations when training future educators (case analysis, designing modes of action in particular situations, acting out the actions in particular situations) allows the students to convert and synthesize their knowledge gained during theoretical course and use it to solve practical problems long before practical training at school. Educational activity is a creative solution of various professional problems. The educational potential of pedagogical situations lies the ability to transform the external requirements of a teacher into the internal needs of a student. Such pedagogical situations allow students to develop skills of transferring the meaning and significance of acquired knowledge in the new conditions. Students are able to apply their knowledge in specific situations created by an educator and adjust their behavior in accordance with the accepted standards. Pedagogical situations can play a significant role in attaching new value to the acquired knowledge about morality. A teacher should not only support the activities of students, but appeal to their deeper behavior motives and raise their awareness of the need and obligation to comply with the relevant requirements. Correct and firm moral knowledge and moral orientation are manifested through actions of students in real life situations. The paper describes various approaches to classification of pedagogical situations and several variants of group classes.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):16-26
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Conditions for professional development of teachers in the system of higher education
Golovneva N.A.
Abstract
This paper deals with the scientific analysis of organizational and methodological support provided in training of future teachers and educators. This analysis has revealed a number of major trends in innovative training. The author has considered the learning process in modern educational institutions in terms of spiritual and moral upbringing, including development through the values of pedagogical culture, i.e. orienting the future education professionals towards the real social problems and needs. The paper describes the organizational and teaching conditions affecting the professional development of highly qualified educators and the organizational and pedagogical mechanism of their professional development. The study has revealed the organizational and pedagogical conditions with a positive potential for real support of occupational training. The author has also analyzed the optimization of university education, which implies that the optimization is impossible without a systematic monitoring of students and informed choice of the teaching means and methods that promote objective results at least cost. In addition, optimization depends on personal characteristics of a teacher, such as his or her creative thinking, motional responsiveness, in-touch capabilities. Methodical support of students training based on specific set of sources, methods, techniques and teaching conditions is crucial factor in optimizing the learning process. It contributes to the development of general and professional culture and capacity building of future educators. Organizational and pedagogical conditions are aimed at stimulating the teaching and learning activities and are designed to accompany the continuous educational process within a specific educational system. This is conditioned by the need to maintain constant pedagogical effect of all organizational and pedagogical conditions on the professional development of highly qualified educators. A future teacher is able to accumulate the required knowledge and broaden his or her outlook through continuous occupational training, studying of relevant reference sources and practical teaching at school. Another relevant aspect of training future educators is diagnosing various sources of teaching information and finding ways to correct the available alternative sources of information. The position of a teacher in supporting student’s work is an accompanying one, as it involves providing aid in student’s cognitive activity, self-analysis, analysis of the situation, goal setting, selection of optimal means and methods.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):26-31
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Pedagogical design as a means of creating the environment for professional development of future primary school teachers
Khvostova E.V.
Abstract
The paper considers a topical issue of using social design technologies in education in order to improve professional competence of bachelor students studying to be primary school teachers. This issue is closely associated with the modern domestic pedagogy trends of towards democratization and humanization and with the major objectives of modernizing the Russian education system. Pedagogical design is a means of creating a constructive educational environment optimal for the professional development of future pre-school and primary school teachers, as well as for prevention of occupational strain and for the development of common cultural and professional competences bachelor students mastering the program 050100.62 Pedagogical Education. The paper suggests designing educational products (programs, individual educational routes etc.) for children in difficult life circumstances (children with disabilities, children in hospital, etc.) as major project activities of teachers and students.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):31-37
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Spiritual and moral upbringing of preschool children in the context of cultural traditions of peoples of Russia
Sukhova E.I., Zoubenko N.Y.
Abstract
This study is devoted to the issue of spiritual and moral upbringing of preschool children as the most relevant trend of the Russian state policy. Moral priorities and social values are gained through historical experience of several generations and are reflected in family, cultural, social, historical and religious traditions. Spiritual and moral upbringing of children, i.e. their social awareness, spiritual and moral formation, is a complex process. It is impossible to approach this issue without coordinating the activities of all stakeholders involved in the educational process. The fundamentals of spiritual and moral culture of an individual are developed during preschool age when a child interacts with the environment relying on his or her natural need in perception, experience, assessment, and understanding. However, some children and parents reject certain moral values that are common in our society. Significant interpenetration and interconnection of cultures increases the risk of upsetting the balance between the national and international, between old and new cultural components of a particular ethnic group. Therefore, it is crucially important to prevent the undesirable social and cultural imbalances in the socialization of children and youngsters and their separation from the national roots. The authors differentiate between the concepts of spirituality and tradition . Spirituality is seen as the highest spiritual and moral qualities, values and achievements, whereas tradition includes the rules and standards of human life, handed down from generation to generation and influenced by moral principles. As they grow, children, especially during the pre-school age, try on different social roles, each of them allowing children to prepare for various duties and activities in the surrounding world. Each social role played by children is important for shaping their future community life and development of moral qualities, such as justice, kindliness, tenderness, care, etc. As a result, children start to act not because they want to get approval of adults, but because they think it is important and essential to observe certain standards of conduct. The study presents some essential traditions fostering the spiritual and moral upbringing of children, such as folk games, Russian folk tales, songs, Russian folk dolls. Raising children in the spirit of national traditions allows educators and parents to develop children’s worldview, broaden their outlook and experience, develop empathy, and support self-control with an account for the interests of other people and social demands.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):38-44
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Learning and research activities of students in orthodox educational institutions
Sterkhov A.A.
Abstract
The paper suggests an optimal option of integrating the students into the learning and research activity. Nowadays, the educational methods and techniques contributing to self-study, independent search for information, ability to produce new knowledge, hypothesize, research, make conclusions, i.e. contributing to research competences of students have become more relevant in the educational process. To ensure self-development and creative work of students, it is necessary to look for new educational forms and methods. After introducing the new Federal State Educational Standards, general schools have solved this goal by organizing learning, research and design activities for students. The scientific level of mastering the historical and social knowledge and their manifestation in their oral and written reports are important because it promotes cultural and civic identity of students and objective assessment of different social groups. The author has developed the methods and techniques of achieving the goals of the educational process by promoting research competence of students and conditions for the development of their positive motivation for study. Moreover, the paper describes a system of self-study tasks, topics for local and national research, a potential final product, and one-year program curriculum designed to encourage the development of research competence of students. The program is designed to foster intellectual and creative personality of young Russian citizens with an account for common characteristics of the educational environment in specific institutions and individual features of gifted students.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):45-51
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Interaction between families and sunday schools in the process of moral upbringing of children
Artemieva G.N.
Abstract
Moral upbringing of the younger generation is one of the topical issues associated with the revival of spirituality and preservation of the Russian national, moral and cultural traditions. Spirituality and morality are universal human values essential to the development of a civilized society. Currently, when Russian people are looking for the ways of spiritual renewal, Orthodox educational tradition is especially relevant. Orthodox spiritual and moral education, along with the secular one, is a subject of many researches and works written by scientists, holy fathers and teachers of the Church. In Russian tradition, family is the main educational institution. Parents are responsible to society for creating the conditions and providing the best opportunities for spiritual and moral upbringing of children. However, nowadays family is undergoing major changes: interpersonal relations are becoming more complicated, mental and physical health of family members decreases, and family values are lost. Orthodox spiritual and moral upbringing of children in Sunday schools is less subject to fundamental changes. Orthodox education is aimed at creating conditions to support the development of person’s spiritual life. This paper considers the conditions of interaction between families and Sunday schools, the latter being a structural unit of the Russian Orthodox Church, in the process of spiritual and moral upbringing of children. Interacting with families, Sunday schools perform a number of important functions: developing family’s educational opportunities, providing pedagogical instruction within Orthodox traditions, involving parents in joint activities with children, and correcting the educational process in individual families. The paper describes the interaction between families and the Sunday School in the Church of the Nativity of Christ in Nizhnevartovsk. Many students starting a Sunday School perceive the learning process as an orientation period. Here children learn basic concepts and principles of Christian life and Orthodox Church. The Sunday School in Nizhnevartovsk was founded twenty years ago, and now it is gradually turning from a traditional children’s school into a family school. Here we describe the experience this Sunday School gained in working with families, such as discussions of family’s spiritual and moral potential initiated by school teachers and priests, joint training sessions, joint home reading, conferences reports on local summer excursions and pilgrimages, participation in traditional religious holidays and festivals, joint work in drawing and craft competitions in Nizhnevartovsk district.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):51-56
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Developing creativity of older preschool children by observing nature and environment
Goncharova E.V., Telegina I.S.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the issue of developing children’s creativity by means of observing the environment. The relevance of the issue is based on the ideas outlined in the previous Federal State Educational Standards of pre-school education. One of the ways to develop creativity in preschool age is providing interaction with nature and environment. Observing natural objects and items makes a particular emotional impact on children by giving them joy, delight, and surprise and thereby improving their aesthetic sense and creativity. The authors see creativity as a complex, multilayer, integral phenomenon, characterized by the general universal ability for creative work. Creativity includes cognitive-creative, cognitive-intellectual and creative components characterized by the corresponding criteria, such as imagination and emotional development for the cognitive-creative component; verbal intelligence, cognitive activity, predictive ability, creative thinking for the cognitive-intellectual component; creative perception and creative product for the creative component. In order to develop each creativity component, the following methods are suggested: method of focal objects, modeling, garland and association methods. Developing children’s creativity is a purposeful process enabling the teachers to solve a number of particular pedagogical objectives and reach the ultimate goal. As a result, the inner creative potential of a child is activated and emotional stress is removed.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):57-63
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Considering age aspect when developing goal-setting ability in the context of competence approach
Snegireva T.V., Bliznetsova O.I.
Abstract
The paper deals ith the aspect of age when developing a goal-setting ability in the context of competence approach. The study shows that this ability initially involves distinguishing the original justification and clarifying the essence and nature of the development object (clear understanding of the developed ability); understanding of the prerequisites and origins for ability formation; analysis of the psychological and pedagogical conditions enabling the development of ability. The paper is aimed at providing theoretical justification of studying goal-setting ability and giving substantial characteristics of goal-setting process. The paper uses the structure of the goal-setting ability proposed by the authors, which assumes further theoretical and practical study of psychological features and functions of these components among students at each stage of ontogenesis. Studying the mechanisms of ability development within ontogenesis seems to be productive in the context of the major student activity and mental structures. Therefore, the development of goal-setting ability goes through the whole educational process. The process of ability formation includes joint activities of teachers and students in terms of defining and setting goals and involves a certain level of skill. The paper describes a psychological study of the empirical and productive goal-setting at various stages of mental development (early childhood, primary school age, adolescence, youth). The authors have investigated the correlation between the structural components of goal-setting and certain age peculiarities.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):63-81
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Dynamics of choosing a victim as an informative characteristic in developing a psychological profile of a serial sexual offender
Tselikovsky S.B., Mikhailova O.Y.
Abstract
The paper considers the perspectives of using psychological profiling as a new and controversial trend of the psychological support of professional law enforcement. The study shows that many researchers of the subject doubt the effectiveness of this method due to the lack of theoretical and methodological foundations of psychological profiling as a method in general and specific procedures of developing a psychological profile of a criminal in particular. The authors have distinguished and analyzed the major problems associated with this method, including little information content in terms of practical criminal investigations, uncertainty of content and functional load of basic concepts such as model , portrait and profile of a criminal, and lack of clear goals and objectives for profilers. In particular, this results in attempts to reject psychological profiling and use criminal profiling instead. The paper provides a critical analysis of such approaches. The authors have previously suggested a distinction between the concepts of model , portrait and profile of an offender in terms of their content and functional load. A model of an individual should be dynamic in nature, allowing the authors to approach the analysis of specific behavioral features included in the model. The paper uses a psychological assessment scheme previously proposed by the authors. In accordance with this scheme, experts are able to analyze the personality of a serial sexual offender with a pathological sexual development similar to the clinical-psychological model developed by A.O. Bukhanovsky and called Chikatilo phenomenon . This work is aimed at analyzing and providing theoretical justification for one of previously identified possible behavioral features of a serial sexual criminal, namely, the type of victims. The criminal experts can use this feature as a criterion for developing a psychological profile of sex offenders. The authors show that in this case one should take into account the choice dynamics during the pathological sexual development of a serial sex offender.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):82-88
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Psychological features of teenagers’ system of basic values and attitude to life
Kovalenko S.V.
Abstract
The papers deals with the psychological peculiarities of substantial and affective components of teenagers’ attitude to life. The paper presents the relation between the hierarchy of values and the hierarchy of needs expressing various parts, aspects and levels of human nature. The author studies the role of values in regulating the behavior and internal conditions for such regulation as a prerequisite for constructing the motivation history of teenagers. Studying the offenders’ personality, the author notes that due to various reasons offenders have quite a different personal image, lifestyle, as well as alternated nature and content of activities and meaning of their life. Such value deformation changes the whole personality and, consequently, the nature of behavior motivation. As part of the study, the paper considers the issue of affective and value components in the meaning of life. Adolescence is the age when a person undergoes intensive development of values and starts searching for the meaning of life. The author also analyzes such aspects as moral development of teenagers, disharmony of values and semantic structures, and personality development. During adolescence period, a person goes through the development of meaningful ideas and integral worldview. However, this process is not a forward movement towards the meaning of life. It is contradictory due to the particular features of the developmental age. The process of personality formation is accompanied with specific feelings and experiences associated with substantial and affective components of teenagers’ attitude towards life.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(2):89-93
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