No 3 (2016)

Articles
DEVELOPMENT OF STATE POLICY IN OIL INDUSTRY DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR
Bodrova E.V., Kalinov V.V.
Abstract
This paper investigates the development of Russian state policy in oil industry during the Great Patriotic War. The authors have identified and characterized the main stages of policy development, efficiency of state activities to relocate the facilities, equipment and personnel of oil enterprises to the Eastern parts of the country, as well as activities to supply fuel to the military front, search for new oil deposits, and improve oil refining. The paper concludes that the Russian oil companies made a significant contribution to the USSR victory, which became one of the major factors determining the outcome of the Great Patriotic War and WWII. The historical experience of the Soviet oil industry in providing the country with strategic materials and developing a base for post-war national project of the powerful oil and gas complex requires further research and study.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):3-7
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ORGANIZING SUPPLIES IN RUSSIAN ARMY IN THE MIDDLE AND LATE 18TH CENTURY
Dmitriev A.V.
Abstract
The paper studies the supply system for the troops of the Siberian Corps in the middle and late 18th century. The system of material supply used for the Russian Army in 18th century still remains a blank spot for historical researches. Based upon some sources from federal and regional archive funds, the authors tried to investigate the practical mechanisms of the supply system, major difficultutes and problems faced by the central and local state, military and civil authorities, as well as principles of provision transportation and distribution among the servicemen. In particular, military authorities had to interact with the Siberian Provincial Office responsible for purchasing provision and supplying the army warehouses. The purchases were a constant problem due to excessive budget expenses for supplying army troops. In some cases, civil authorities did not even take any part in the supply for the troops leaving it to the military command. The lack of delimitation between military and civil authorities, a characteristic feature for the whole period, led to many conflicts. Both the authorities and the military command were forced to make efforts to save the state treasury’s money in order to avoid expenses and losses. Along with that, it was necessary to achieve the full value supply of provision and forage to the troops. Sometimes the servicemen even had to assume the duties assigned to the local Siberian administration. At the same time, the authors conclude that supplies for army troops, considering specific Siberian conditions, were quite successful throughout the whole period under study. In case of any emergency, the Siberian Corps’ command together with the Siberian Provincial Office managed to find the required means and resources. This gives evidence to some flexible mechanisms in the Russian Empire’s government, allowing some deviations from the strict financial policies in favor of particular military needs.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):7-13
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«SEIZURE OF KAZAN» IN THE NATIONAL HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE 20TH CENTURY AND WORKS BY B.G. VERKHOVEN
Zubov V.N.
Abstract
This paper attempts to reconsider the views on works by B. G. Verkhoven within the integration of Khanate of Kazan into Russia after the Seizure of Kazan in 1552, which is a topical issue in national historiography for the middle 20th century. As a part of wider historiographic discourse, the Seizure of Kazan was viwed not only within the frames of the Moscow State development during the time of Ivan IV, but also within the policy and character of the first Russian Tsar. The works and researches devoted to the character of Ivan IV the Terrible were later called by a collective name of «Ivaninana». The author of the present work has specified the mechanisms of the «propaganda machine» during the time of Joseph Stalin. We believe that a detailed analysis of B.G. Verkhoven’s concept of the Siege of Kazan and the contemporary reaction towards the event will allow us to address the issue of the perception of the Ivan the Terrible and his reign by the historiographers of Stalin period more thoroughly. The analysis of historiographic works by S. V. Bakhrushin, I. U. Budovnits, R. Yu. Vipper, Yu. V. Gotye, S. M. Dubrovsky, V. D. Korolyuk, G. K. Krasinsky, M. D. Kurmacheva, D. S. Likhachev, N. Novikov, B. Telpukhovsky, M. G. Khudyakov made us doubt the conclusion made by A. L. Horoshkevich about the key role B.G. Verkhoven had played in developing the official interpretation of the way Khanate of Kazan was annexed and integrated into the then Russian state. We also doudt that the steady Russian historic expression translated as «expansion of the Russian state», allegedly introduced by B. G. Verkhoven, intrinsically belongs to this historiographer . The paper pays attention both to the substance of B. G. Vekhoven’s concept concerning the annexation of Khanate of Kazan and to the circumstatnces in which the historigrapher’s works were published. We believe that this work will be of much interest to the historians studying the development of the Soviet historiography in the middle 20th century, as well as help to reconstruct the history of the Muscovite state of the middle 16th century.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):13-18
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AFGHAN REFUGEES IN THE SOVIET-AMERICAN «PROPAGANDA WAR» (1980-s)
Rabush T.V.
Abstract
This study highlights the role and place of the problem of Afghan refugees in the Soviet-American propaganda war that lasted throughout the 1980s. The author analyzes the nature of US humanitarian assistance to Afghan refugees, stressing the fact that the US assistance in Afghanistan was not only a humanitarian action of good will, but at the same time a topic of exaggerated foreign propaganda (both in official political speeches and media) used to condemn the fact of the Soviet military presence in Afghanistan. The author points to a dramatic increase in the number of refugees (which lasted throughout the 1980-s), which was undoubtedly convenient for the American (and some foreign) anti-Soviet propaganda. The author examines the roles of Afghan refugee issue in the foreign (mostly American) anti-Soviet and anti-Afghan propaganda, as well as in official anti-American propaganda of Kabul and the Soviet Union. Foreign authors tried to denigrate Soviet activities in Afghanistan in every possible way pointing out that a large number of Afghan refugees and the constant growth of refugee number are associated with the Soviet policy of «squeezing» the civilian population out of Afghanistan through active and destructive military operations, which, in fact, was a piece of disinformation aimed at damaging the prestige of the Soviet Union in the eyes of the international community and present the Soviet Union as a war criminal. The Soviet and Afghan media, government officials and researchers presente the opposite propaganda mainly by showing the extremely difficult situation of Afghan refugees in Pakistan who became sort of a tennis-ball for the leaders of the armed Afghan opposition. We conclude that the problem of Afghan refugees during the 1980-s was a significant factor in the Soviet-American propaganda war waged around the events in Afghanistan taking place immediately after the April Revolution of 1978. In fact, the refugee issue became a «bargaining chip» in the global geopolitical game between the two superpowers.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):18-24
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SIBERIAN OUTLANDERS SWEARING A SHERT’ OATH TO THEIR MUSCOVITE SOVEREIGN (BEGINNING AND CHRONOLOGY OF THE PRACTICE)
Solodkin Y.G.
Abstract
This paper discusses one of the topical issues in Siberian studies, namely, the beginning of the tradition to administer a shert’, an oath of allegiance to Muscovite sovereign, to the peoples of Siberia. Although the historians do not doubt the fact that this practice dates back to the first years of Russian colonization of Siberia, the idea that the oath was administered by Ermak Cossacks, originated by G.F. Miller, cannot be considered conclusive. The author pays special attention to the analysis of Yesipovsky chronicle message of the beginning of such practice at the time of «Siberian seizure». The study revealed that the edvidence mentioned in the chronicle message includes literary clichés available in the Esipov’s work. The message contains the text entry of the shert’ oath record composed not in the second quarter of the 17th century, as it was previously considered, but rather before the death of Kuchum, i.e. in early 17th century. We have proved that Ermak Cossacks limited their control practices to collecting a tribute, while the practice of shert’s oath administered to Siberian outlanders started from the subsequent expeditions of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich’s governors, I. A. Mansurov and V. B. Sukin in particular. We have found that the first oath-givers were Prince Luguy and Prince Igichey, Tsyngop Murza, and a prominent Tyumen Tatar service man M. Achekmatov.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):24-31
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DEVELOPMENT OF MARRIAGE SEARCH RECORDS IN PARISH CHURCHES OF TOBOLSK DIOCESE IN THE 18TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURIES
Spichak A.V.
Abstract
The article discusses the development of marriage search records in parish churches of Tobolsk Diocese in the 18th - early 20th centuries. The aim is to clarify the extent to which marriage search records in the parish church of Tobolsk Diocese comply with legal requirements. The work is relevant due to the fact the study of marriage search records registered in Tobolsk Diocese during the synodal period, as well as the analysis of factors determining changes in record content and design shall contribute to understanding the laws and development of church records management. The study is of a practicular research novelty, since so far the researchers have not addressed the development of marriage search records in Tobolsk Diocese of the 18th - early 20th centuries. In this work we define the notion of «marriage search record» as a specific type of document and analyse the forms of marriage search records, their development and correspondence to the legal requirements. Particular attention is paid to the degree legal norms regulating the rules of marriage search record in Tobolsk Diocese in the 18th - early 20th centuries are implemented. The study proves that the parish church practice was subjected to regulation, was constantly improved and that new elements were added. The study revealed no marriage search records of the 18th century in the state archives. Parish churches of Todolsk Diocese began registering marriage search records in 1802 when the diocese approved the requirement to theological consistories to give the clergy a special book to record such search records. This fact indicates that the statutory rights and improvement of «church letter management» contributed to the best preservation of church documents. After analyzing marriage search records registered in 1802-1910 we concluded that these documents were mostly registered by hand in cord (search) books fastened with wax seal of Tobolsk Theological Consistory and had almost the same form of presentation. Startin gfrom the middle of the 19th century there were several churches which began to use printed forms of marriage search records. Thus, not all clerics recognized the importance of drawing up the search records in accordance with the the prescribed form.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):31-36
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A STRUCTURE OF THE SALTOVO-MAYAKI CULTURE NEAR THE VILLAGE OF ZALOMNOYE IN BELGOROD REGION
Stepovoy A.V.
Abstract
This work studies the material concerning a structure near the village of Zalomnoye in Belgorod Region examined by A.G. Nikolaenko and a local history group Alan in 1973. A.G. Nikolaenko did not publish his examination results, although the material is of certain historical interest, the structure being a cultural site of Zolomnoye settlement. Based on the massive ceramic material and specific items found on the site, the settlement and the structure were related to the Saltovo-Mayaki culture of the 8th-10th centuries A.D. Zalamnoye settlement is located in the floodplain of the Oskol River in a pit between sand dunes directly in contact with the left bank of the river. Therefore, the population of the settlement belonging to the Saltovo-Mayaki culture, due to such geological conditions, could not apply the catacomb burial in sandy soil. The settlement was not subjected to archeological excavations. A half earthen structure located on the edge of the settment close to the river has an almost square shape, with the corners oriented with respect to the cardial directions. The floor is made of mud, with white clay on a layer of black soil over the mainland fine yellow sand. The floor was covered with charcoal and pieces of burnt clay with traces of coating. We believe that there were poles, bars and clay used in the construction of the structure. Given the sandy soil, we assume that the walls were made of wattle covered with clay. The center of the structure contained a hearth sunken into the floor. The southern part of the structure contained a rectangular burnt spot with one rounded. The orange-coloured spot of such shape could be left by some sort of fire device. The internal structure of the premises had a sector defined by small pits united by the hearth and the burnt spot. The pits could have had some wooden poles serving as a support for the hearth structure. The housing has some holes in the northern corner, by the north-eastern wall and in south-eastern corner. The holes are filled with the bones of domestic animals, pottery fragments and charcoal. Since the western corner of the north-western side of the pit was destroyed by coastal cliff, we can assume that the western corner had a hole filled with bones of domestic animals, pottery and charcoal. All pottery discovered on the site, with fragments of cooking ware and tare prevailing, was made on the pottery wheel. The pots had linear horizontal patterns for the most part. Of all the ceramics discovered, a fragment of tableware with a spout pasted on and a fragment with the image of a twirling snake are most remarkable. We believe that the structure located on the outskirts of the settlement near the river is connected with some ritual activities. Holes in the floor of the room filled with bones of domestic animals, fragments of pottery and charcoal may have had ritual significance. The burnt spot located in the southern part of the room could have been left from some fire device associated with the cult of fire. A fragment of a kitchen pot with the image of a twirling snake and a fragment of the tableware with a spout pasted on could have had some magic value. The pit with the structure was abandoned perhaps already during the period the settlement was still inhavited, since most pottery was found in the cultural layer of the structure.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):36-42
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STATUTES AND RUGULATIONS OF MUNICIPAL INSTITUTIONS AS A SOURCE OF SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE LATE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURIES (IN TYUMEN)
Khramtsov A.B.
Abstract
Introducing and commenting the written sources of the 19th - early 20th centuries into scientific environment is oone of the most urgent challenges for the Russian history researchers. The fact is that these sources are extremely abundant and imformative, which allows highlighting the outline of historic events as well as possible, including the events both in the central cities of Russian Empire, and also in the outskirts of the state. At the same time, the apparent availability and abundance of these sources and their understandable language deprive these documents of the status of a complex, and thus, an attractive source of historical information. Here we should note that we share this point of view. The present work considers statutes and regulations issued by public institutions in Tyumen and operating in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. These sources allow us to study the changes and development of social life and social infrastructure of the city. The results of our study can be of use for urban geographers, local historians and source researchers. The work is open for further scientific discussion.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):43-47
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MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN RESTORING RAILWAY COMMUNICATION IN KARELIA DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR
Tsys V.V.
Abstract
The following paper considers major aspects of work of railway troops and military troops of the Karelian Front in ensuring the operation and restoring railway communication in Karelia during the Great Patriotic War, including the repair of the railway lines and road infrastructure in the liberated territories; ful provision; allocation of resources (food, clothing etc.); innovations; training railway personnel and operators; disaster management. The author indicates a huge amount of damage during the liberation of the occupied territories and notes that most works were performed by the troops of the Deparment of Military and Reconstruction Operations No. 11 of the People's Commissariat of Railways in coordination with the Military Council of the Karelian Front. Military units took occasional part in the reconstruction. The author concludes that involving military troops allowed bringing the damaged areas of Kirov Railway back in operation within a short period of time. Most works were performed in late June - November 1944 during the Svir-Petrozavodsk Offensive Operation and soon after the operation was completed. With limited resources and tight deadlines, the Deparment of Military and Reconstruction Operations No. 11 was engaged in «primary» reconstruction, i.e. restoration of railway traffic and communication on the ruined raiway sections in order to ensure transportation of personnel and material resources to the combat operational zone. Other works, including the reconstruction of buildings and facilities such as warehouses, water towers and railway stations destroyed by invaders were postponed to a later date and were assigned to the civil services.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):47-52
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INSPECTION VISITS OF TOBOLSK DIOCESAN BISHOPS AS A CHURCH MANAGEMENT ELEMENT OF THE 19th - EARLY 20th CENTURIES (IN NORTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA)
Tsys O.P.
Abstract
The paper discusses the results of inspection visits made by Tobolsk diocesan bishops in the North of Western Siberia in the 19th - early 20th centuries. The author states tha personal visits of the bishops to Tobols Diocese played an important role in church management. At the end of each visit the bishop made important decisions concerning various church activities, such as missionary activities, education of the indigenous population, development and expansion of church staff, organizational and financial support, abolition of anti-pagan missions. The objective of christianizing the indigenous population involved the measures aimed at establishing and maintaining primary schools for children Ostyaks, Voguls and Samoyeds. The spread of Orthodoxy, catechesis of indigenous peoples were seen as an integral part of theiur education and inclusion in the socio-cultural environment of the Russian state. These were the areas with the most significant results. Other problemst the сhurch authorities constantly kept in mind were personnel issues and material support of the clergy in sparsely populated and remote areas of the North. A visit would typically involve a monitoring of church exterior and interior, overseeing the state of the clergy’s faith, morals, preaching and liturgical activities. The bischop gave instructions on how to improve the educational level of the clergymen. The reforms aimed at improving the system of church government in Tobolsk North were less successful. The visit results included the solutions to current issues of the parish life, which involved personnal management from the diocesan bishop, such as the construction of new churches, ordination to the clergy, awards for longstanding irreproachable service, punishment for misconduct etc.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):53-58
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PUBLIC POLICY OF GERMAN EMPIRE CONCERNING CHILD LABOUR PROTECTION IN FACTORY INDUSTRY
Bespalova L.N.
Abstract
This study considers the issue of child labour at industrial enterprises of German Empire in the 19th century. The author gives special attention to the period of late 1880-s, as it was the time when the public was actively debating the economic, moral and ethical rationale for exploiting children as a category of hired employees. The paper analyses and compares the views of different political forces able to make relevant decisions, including the Imperial Party, the Conservatives, the German Centre Party supporting preventive labour protection and the National Liberals protecting the industrial interests. The author establishes the fact the issue of child labour was under much public and legislative discussion based on analysis of stenographic reports of German Reichstag. The viewpoint of the Prussian government leader, Reichschancellor Otto von Bismarck, is of particular interest. Despite his active position in social politics and his reforms in the social security system in the 1880-s, Оtto von Bismarck was turned against introducing the legislation in the field of preventive labour protection. The author pays special attention to the results of the International Conference on Labour Protection held in March 1890 in Berlin and initiated by the Emperor Wilhelm II.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):59-65
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CHURCH OF ENGLAND DURING PRE-REFORMATION DECADES OF THE 16TH CENTURY
Yerokhin V.N.
Abstract
The paper evaluates the inner state and role of the Church of England in English society at the point of Reformation during the first decades of the 16th century. Reformation studies in contemporary British historical science still continue to wage polemics between liberal and revisionist trends trying to clarify causes of Reformation in England. The liberal concept of Reformation in England explains it by the fact that protestant ideas were rather attractive for the educated part of English population and able to satisfy the spiritual quest and needs of the educated and economically active part of the English society. When explaining the causes of Reformation liberal historians emphasize the shortcomings of church life during the first decades of the 16th century, e.g., economic, administrative abuses of clerics, insufficient attention to spiritual quest of parishioners most interested in religious life. These deficiencies resulted in anti-clericalism and non-satisfaction of the policy and practices pursued by the Church of England. So, according to the liberal concept of English Reformation, when England broke its connections with the Roman church and administration in 1534 for political reasons and the will of Henry VIII (1509-1547), it fully corresponded to the existing spiritual demands in English society. The revisionist concept of Reformation in England explains it by political causes and by the royal desire to be fully independent in pursuing home and foreign policy. The Reformation is therefore considered as a political phenomenon, with the spiritual doubts and religious quests of the English churchmen and intellectuals considered to be much less a decisive factor in the origin of Reformation, but rather seen as a contribution to the establishment of Protestantism as an official religion in England.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):65-73
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MILITARY PROPAGANDA IN USA PERIODICALS IN 1916-1917
Savelyeva A.V.
Abstract
The study is devoted to a topical issue of defining the role of the American press in the military propaganda of 1916-1917. Periodicals are original historical sources, allowing the researchers to introduce new data and create a link between individual events of the USA military history reflected in various sources of the first half of the 20th century. This paper studies the USA periodicals as sources of military propaganda in 1916-1917. The study is based on the materials of American newspapers published in 1916-1917 such as New York Tribune and The New York Times , established in 1840-1850-ies, and Washington Post . These newspapers are located on the official website of the Library of Congress and contain the information about the views of the USA public authorities and American society concernting the USA involvement in the World War I. When working with the research materials, the author used general scientific methods, such as description, analysis, comparison, as well as with special methods of historical research, including historical and comparative method, cultural and semiotic approach. The study proved that USA newspapers played a key role in developing a negative image of Germany. This, in turn, contributed to the transformation of public opinion about the USA involvement in World War I. State authorities tried to enter the war in order to participate in the post-war division of the world and the American society felt the need to help the world to get rid of the barbarian Germany. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany. The American newspapers used illustrations and photos for military propaganda. For example, when using pictures of war and military equipment the USA press was trying to attract new recruits to participate in the war. In addition, the newspapers used some materials to dehumanize the Germans. The results of the study allow us to reconstruct some historic aspects of the USA military during the period of World War I.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):73-77
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FRANÇOIS MITTERAND: TOUCHES ON THE PORTRAIT
Strelets M.V.
Abstract
On October 26, 2016 is the 100the anniversary of François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand. He was the head of the French State for fourteen years. His name is directly related to the experience of social and reformist (in its ideological profile) political party in the context of genuine democracy, mature constitutional state with deep traditions in civil society and a well-established market economy. Mitterrand was an example of a party leader who managed to turn his party into the most influential one in that left of the centre part of political spectrum. Mitterrand’s era identified the possibilities and boundaries of power-sharing by a socialist president and government head representing the right part of political spectrum. For the first time in Post-Soviet historical science the author attempts to carry out a systemic reconstruction of this politician’s and statesman’s life and activity. The author is undoubtedly aware of divergent assessments of Mitterrand’s personality made by politicians and historical experts. In the writing of this paper the intention was to make balanced assessments of all stages in François Mitterrand’s political biography.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):77-80
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«COINS OF THE UNKNOWN PEOPLE» OR ON THE ATTRIBUTION OF «TAMAN DENARII»
Choref M.M.
Abstract
The study considers quite rare, but, at the same time, historically important ancient coins - «Taman denarii». These barbaric imitations were introduced to the scientific revolution at the beginning of the XIX century. They are considered to be coins of the Goths. The head side of the coin contains the image of the Roman Emperor, the tail side depicts walking Mars. The very appearance of these coins is linked to the raids made by the allied Germanic tribes into the Roman territory during the «Scythian wars». However, we cannot accept this point of view. Based on the results of the iconographic analysis, we believe that these coins should not be considered replicas of the Roman denarii. The point is that the figure featured on its tail side is clearly a forward-facing image of Hercules. This could be proved both by the figure's position and the weapon which the deity is holding. At the same time the obverse image is not similar to the bust of the ruler of Rome. After all, it is inexcusably styled. And, in any case, it might have been created not only by the Germans. The idea and method of styling allows us to consider it to be Celtic. Apart from that, the prototype of the «Taman denarii» could is easily defined. This is the tetradrachm of Thasus which was traditionally copied from the Thracians. Furthermore, it should be taken into account that during the «Scythian wars» the Goths of the Black Sea Coast had little intention to advance money emission. After all, during the raids into the Roman lands they captured significant amounts of precious metals, including coins. In any case, the Goths could not have hammered billon and copper coins using the same dies -there was no economic sense. Based on the revealed facts, we conclude that the examined coins are not Gothic. It is likely that they were minted by Thracians, who, by the way, stopped maintaining contact with their fellow tribesmen from the Balkans and failed to establish ties with Rome and the Bosporan Kingdom. However, based on the results of archaeological research they were in active contact with the tribes of the Northern Black Sea coast. We hope that the findings of our research will be favorably received by the scientific community.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):80-88
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FAMILY POLICY OF THE UK LABOUR AND CONSERVATIVE PARTIES IN 2010 ELECTION CAMPAIGN
Yakubova L.A.
Abstract
The given article touches upon the basic points of the UK Labour and Conservative parties’ policy towards the family, women and children in the first decade of the 2000-s. The author analyzes Labour and Conservative polemic regarding the most important areas of social policy in the context of 2010 election campaign. The effective management of UK family policy in the late 20th - early 21st centuries was the focus of two major political parties, Conservative Party and Labour Party. Family, women and children affairs to diverse extent have always been included in the various social policy programs of UK political parties. The Labour Party, led by Gordon Brown, emphasized social legislation and the continuation of the policy initiated by «New Labour» and ex prime-minister Tony Blair. The social pocily proclaimed by the Labour Party was based on the following: gender equality modernization, support for women workers, tax relief for families and single parents with children, pension reform and child poverty salvation. The Conservatives, led by David Cameron, emphasized the ideas of social justice, non-traditional for Tory and caused by the transformation of family in the late 20th century. The Conservatives prepared the pamphlet «Repair Plan For Social Reform» (2008) which concerned the following points: a new system of flexible parental leave; flexible working hours for parents with children under 18; universal health care at home for families with newborn kids; introduction of taxes and benefits system, with an account for the needs of officially married couples; a finance system for preschool institutions ensuring their competitiveness; increased social responsibility of business. The given study is based on the analysis of the original English-language sources, including election manifestoes of British Conservative and Labour parties, British periodical press materials, legal documents and materials of British Trade Union Congress.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(3):88-94
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