No 2 (2017)

Articles
THE FORMATION OF ARCTIC AGRICULTURE IN THE USSR (Yamal)
Alekseeva L.V.
Abstract
From the perspective of importance of Arctic territories in the life of modern civilization the article considers the historical conditions and the results of the formation of polar agriculture in the USSR based on the materials of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District in the period of the 1930s. Based on the careful study of various historical sources, the author determines major factors (including exile of peasants) and means of state policy implementation regarding exploration of the Northern territories. Interdisciplinary method was used for the purposes of this article. This approach allows exploring the topic from different scientific perspectives. The article analyzes the main state policies regarding agricultural development of the arctic region. The paper reviews first farming experience in the region and set up of agricultural institutions. The dynamic of agricultural development is supported by the statistical data. The article also dwells on the role that the Main Administration of the Northern Sea Route played in the economical development of the region. The author discusses such issues as scientific basics of arctic agriculture that played an immense role in organization of sowing in Tundra soil. In this context, the positive significance was the creation of the comprehensive Yamal agricultural station as a division of the Institute of polar agriculture, to carry out a large complex of experimental works to supply the seeds of varieties of cultures, businesses and farms. At the same time the article emphasizes the importance of local agronomist with a passion in promoting agriculture and development in Salekhard - D. M. Chubynina. The establishment of arctic agriculture was due to the peasant exile to Siberia in line with the strategy of the Soviet state for development of Northern territories to extract resources; the creation of national districts in the North were also subject to this global challenge; the example of the Yamal Peninsula can be traced to the implementation of the state policy on agricultural development of Northern territories, designed to provide vegetables to the population that if not to remove, minimize financial burden from the state to provide these territories with food; the administrative resource of the project «Arctic agriculture» made formed in 1932 house, has bigger potential, compared with the Soviet authorities in solving the problems.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):3-10
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THE CLERGY AND PARISHES OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN THE ZAURALYE IN 1919-1929
Borisova V.V.
Abstract
The article discusses the question of the status of Orthodox parishes and clergy of the Zauralye since the implementation of the decree of the Soviet government «the separation of Church from state and school from Church» in 1919 and before acceptance by Presidium of the Central Executive Committee on 8 April 1929 decree «On religious associations», which gave way to the forcible ousting of religion from public life. The aim of this work is to assess the material situation of the clergy and parishes, the amount of financial and moral support of the Church believers, the identification of the degree of influence of religion on the population in the Zauralye. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the identification and analysis of the facts of everyday life of the Orthodox world in the post-revolution period, contribute to the understanding of the depth of faith and the role of the Russian Orthodox Church for an average believer. It is shown that in the period when the state decided the «Church question» by strengthening the ideological struggle, the administrative burden, legal and financial restrictions, deprivation of several civil rights of the Orthodox Church in the region continued to exist only thanks to the efforts of the parishioners. Indicates that believers not only took full responsibility for the material support of the clergy and diocesan leadership, but also made payments for the use of temple property and the payment of taxes, organized the protection and repair of Church buildings. The analysis of a wide source base, based on the archives of Tobolsk, Tyumen, Kurgan and Surgut analyzed statistical data on number of parishioners, weddings, baptisms and funerals in the study period. The data shows stable positive dynamics of these rites and the first baptisms of children. Was also studied the results of surveys in the region's schools and state institutions, indicating the preservation of the influence of religion on the lives of respondents and their families. It is possible to draw a conclusion that thanks to the help of parishioners in the studied period, in the Zauralye, although not in full, but preserved the episcopate and diocesan administration. It is also important to note that the parish was not completely destroyed. Parishes preserved self-governance and all issues were discussed and decided at meetings. It is noted that the growth of atheism and indecent behavior of the population against Orthodox priests and believers also took place.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):10-17
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ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF BIORESOURCES OF THE NORTHERN PART OF WESTERN SIBERA IN 1960s - 1980s
Gololobov E.I., Mostovenko M.S.
Abstract
The article reviews the process of establishment and development of scientific research of main bioresources of traditional trades of Siberian people and fishery. Rapid development of oil and gas exploration in Western Siberia overshadowed economical development of indigenous Siberian peoples’ trades - deer farming, hunting and fishing. However, state and Party official documents and research emphasize importance of the development of biological resources of Northern USSR. It was noted that such traditional trades as hunting, fishing, and deer hunting play an important role in economical development of indigenous peoples of the North and establishment of food economy necessary for the growing population of the North due to active industrialization. The issue of the use of biological resources of the North was viewed through the framework of radical improvement of the ways traditional economies were managed. Communist Party Congress degrees and other official documents emphasized importance of scientific research in economical and agricultural planning and management in the North development process. It was decided to intensify the development of Northern bioresources. Thre main directions were determined: establishing tight timeframe for local trades; conducting biotechnical activities aimed at improvement of the environment; transitioning from extensive trading to zoo and water culture - breeding of land and water species. Scientific research was aligned with these priorities. It is possible to make a conclusion that biological and geobotanical aspects of North development were studies to a greater extent. Theoretical basics, technical and social and economical issues of North development were underresearched. Cooperation of the state authorities and scientists in the area of rational environmental management in the north was controversial. On the one hand, issues of rational exploration of bioresources were included in the “general sxhemes” of the North development. On the other hand, issues concerning the development of the North were prioritized and were not tackled in the same way as issues of rural economics. Despite declarative importance of scientific approach to the development of bioresources in the North, it was always overshadowed by fuel and energy issues.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):17-24
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COLLECTION OF CUSTOMS DUTIES IN TOTMA IN SEPTEMBER OF 1629 AND NORMS OF AUTHORIZED CUSTOMS LETTER
Kisterev S.N.
Abstract
The article was written with the help of archive sources. It shows that various customs duties collections were performed by tselovalniks. This process strictly followed norms of the local authorized customs letter that came into effect on the 1st of September, 1622. This fact is supported by the comparison between the orders in the letter and numerous entries of custom duties collection, in particular shipping and general taxes collected from Totma citizens and other cities. The research shows that authorized customs letter determined the payment and its limits for each case whereas in practice the payment was determined by vessels’ real size allowing for price digressions. This was a small boat of a merchant was charged the same amount of money as big ships. Whether the goods belonged to those transporting them or not was also taken into consideration. Tarkhanschiks could use fringe benefits. Duties paid in rubles were not taken note of in the book. People who were not merchants were charged less than those working in the trade, including people from other cities. All this supports and elaborates on the practices of Russian customs and customs policies in the post-troubled times.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):25-31
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ON HISTORY OF WINE TRADE IN BERYOZOVSKY KRAI IN THE SECOND HALF OF XIX CENTURY
Mitrofanov V.V.
Abstract
The article analyzes changes in the law of Russian empire regarding excise tax on wine in Western Siberia and the implementation of these policies in Beryozovsky krai. New archive materials help to determine the amounts and price policies established by the government. Wine traders from other cities are of primary interest. During the audit of Beryozovsky uezd civil governors of Tobolsk County offered different observations: first, wine sale was forbidden, then allowed, then forbidden again, then, it was only forbidden at deer farms and fairs. It was decided to pay for wine with money only and not with animal skins. Liquor stores were established and one could buy wine both at retail and wholesale. It is noted that the search for optimal wine trade management systems continued throughout the whole XIXth century. It is possible to draw a conclusion that it was practically impossible to solve the issue of wine trade on the level of counties and Western Siberia as a whole due to multiple reasons. Among those reasons are both objective (vast territoriy, lack of control) and subjective (interest that indeginous people ook in alcohol, acquisitiveness of tradespeople, who got indigenous people addicted to alcohol, lack of competition due to power abuse and unattractiveness of trade).
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):31-36
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HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE KARGOPOLSKY DISTRICT, MIDDLE OF THE XVI, FIRST QUARTER OF THE XVII CENTURIES
Pobezhimov A.I.
Abstract
Article is devoted to historical geography of the Kargopolsky district of the middle of the XVI first quarter of the XVII centuries the Kargopolsky district was created in the basin of the river of Onega, stretched from the South - from the Lake Lacha for the North to coast of Onega Bay of the White Sea. In the West the district bordered on Zaonezhsky country churchyards; in the east - with the Dwin district; in the southeast - with the Vazhsky district; in the northeast - with the Dwin district; in the south - from Charondskaya okrugy and the Belozersky district. The historical geography studies areas in their historical development: as geographical conditions are connected with processes of colonization of lands; the reasons influencing development of the territory during various periods of history that allows to predict further development of the region in the economic and historical and cultural relation. Relevance of research is defined by it. Scientific novelty locates that the actual material is systematized and to be introduced into scientific circulation the new data from written sources connected with historical geography of the Kargopolsky district. In the Russian historiography the territory, borders, internal structure and a control system of the district were defined, settling and economic development of separate areas of Poonezhya was investigated. There were not up to the end studied questions connected with definition of internal borders, features of economic development of certain territories of the district and development of settlements, localization of means of communication and their roles in colonization of lands. As a result of the conducted research the new facts and assumptions were elicited. And a volostok allowed to establish to geography of volosts the area of the most intensive and possibly early development, so-called «the Onega massif». Connection of «the Onega massif» with the ways passing through it water snaking trail is shown, their value in settling of the district thereby is emphasized. To the middle of the XVI century in the Kargopolsky district, generally around Kargopol the network of roads is already formed. In northern part of the district overland ways still a long time were called as snaking trail. The probable border (boundary) between half of the Kargopolsky district was defined: Turchasovskoy and Kargopolskoy. An attempt of reconstruction of history of development of the Kargopolsky district during the Novgorod period is made: boyarshchina - possession of peasants-svoyezemtsev; names of settlements the village or seltso - the former administrative centers or possessory settlements; localization of the Novgorod Pogost at a threshold contacts Berichevsky thresholds in the lower reach of Onega and the volost the Ordomsky country churchyard in the Turchasovsky camp.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):37-44
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RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS THE SETTLEMENTS YTANOVKA-2 OF THE SALTOVO-MAYATSKAYA CULTURE (according to the materials of Nikolaenko A. G. field works 1973, 1976)
Stepovoy A.V., Grebenjukov V.I.
Abstract
In this article the material from all four residential buildings investigated by Nikolaenko A. G., 1973, 1976 at the settlement Yutanovka-2 of Saltovo-Mayatskaya culture of VIII-X centuries is represented. The Settlement of Alan forest-steppe variant of the Saltovo-Mayatskaya culture is located on the territory of the village YutanovkaVolokonovka district Belgorod region, on the right Bank of the river Oskol. Buildings 1, 2 and 4 were half preserved, the construction of the 3 building was investigated fully. Inside there is a fireplace as a heating device and as a device for cooking, which makes the construction residential. The main heating appliance is presented almost in the center as an open hearth. In buildings 1 and 2, the hearth is arranged in the circular recess, but in combination with angular-depth hearth. At construction 3 - hearth is in the shape of the recesses rounded pits with different depths. In the building 4 hearth is outdoor, fence without or special grooves, but in combination with near-wall not depth hearth may be enclosed by few stones or in combination with a stove-heater. The Central hearth in the homes of 1 and 2 were supplemented by a corner device, and in the housing 4 it was supplemented by wall device, which served as additional sources of heat. It is possible that on the location of the corner (wall) hearth as an additional source of heating, hot ash and charcoal were strode down. These hearths, especially the corner hearths, could be the privileged place for some time the hot ash was put, as the object of reverence and worship. From ethnographic materials it is known that the peoples of the North Caucasus considered hearth, natochina circuit, the boiler, ash and coal from the hearth a family Shrine, from which depended the prosperity and abundance in the house. In the traditional home of the North Caucasus, the middle hearth was never arranged strictly in the center of the room and opposite the entrance, but it was always some way that the wind from the open door didn't blow the fire and to increase the area of the economic half of the home. The hearth divided the living area into two functionally different parts: from the entrance before the fire - front, the economic and the second, behind the hearth, warm and secluded, which was considered honorable. In the past Ossetians believed that God, the guardian of the hearth, lived in the right inside corner, i.e. the most remote from the entrance of the home. Central and wall hearths were held in the homes of the Mayatskoye citadel and rarely in the Mayatskoye settlement. At the settlement Yutanovka-1, Demetrius complex, at the settlement VerkhniySaltov residential buildings with a combination of nodal (wall) hearths were not revealed. Material that gives us some knowledge about the residential buildings of the settlement were not introduced into scientific circulation, although they represent the interest as the only currently archaeological sites of residential character, studied at the settlement Yutanovka-2.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):45-51
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SOCIAL GUARANTEES IN COLLECTIVE FARMS OF WESTERN SIBERIA DURING 1953-1964
Fedorova M.I.
Abstract
This article discusses the social guarantees of the collective farms for collective farmers in Western Siberia in the period 1953-1964. The aim of the study is to ascertain specific forms of social protection of workers in the limits of the collective farm system during that period. In work methods were used: ideographic, historical-genetic, retrospective. Social guarantees were determined for several positions: payment of labor days, monetary and material support for personal needs, cash payment and incentive wages. Based on the analysis of archives documents shows that the Board and general meetings of the collective farmers to solve pressing problems and issues, which for able-bodied and disabled person were vital. Generally are characterize any issues can be resolved immediately, and which are ignored. The Board of collective farm and general meetings of collective farm workers elaboration questions and make decisions concerning vital important of the moments of collective farmers, provided on a collective level material and financial support to the functioning of the collective farm of the family and a personal farm in the village. Discussions small questions and everyday matters, have decision for each of them at a general meeting of members of the agricultural cooperation testified about the real embodiment of the principle of collectivism in the practice of the organization and direction into collective farm life. Forms for calculating into collective farm of economic activity, eхcept the workday, were social guarantees: material and financial support, incentives, correction workday, the support of a personal farm feeds and animals. During the study of period, the work of the members of collective farm was not disinterested. There was a fairly flexible pay of work. In this sense, collective-farm economy during the study period was supporting, a personal farm does not compete with the collective, and was a part of it. The results are relevant to the reconstruction process of collective failure function of the socialist industrial model in its regional manifestations.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):52-57
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ORTHODOX PARISH IN TOBOLSK NORTH XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES: MILESTONES, FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT
Tsys’ О.Р.
Abstract
The article deals with the process of formation of the system of parishes and the way it developed in Tobolsk North. There are three main stages of how the parishes formed in that area: the end of the XVIth - middle of the XVIIth centuries, the first half of the XVIIIth century, the middle of the XIXth - beginning of the ХХth centuries. It should be stressed that due to Russian migrants the demographic growth significantly affected the expansion of the orthodox culture. The number and the nationality of parishioners are analyzed. The study of the clergy lists showed that although the amount of the parishioners grew, the Tobolsk North data was far behind the average diocesan statistics. Conclusions are drawn that as there was predominance of non-Russians in the rural poorly populated parishes who in general were indifferent to orthodoxy, the clergy had difficulty accomplishing their goals because there were few people they could rely on. The research also mentions the measures that the government used to take to support the clergy financially. Furthermore the article considers the structure and some demographic characteristics of the clergy of the Tobolsk North parish. Originally most clergy were represented by the local dynasties whose education was limited mainly to home schooling and primary religious schools. However, later on the clergy became less and less reticent or closed within its class and families. Their education and professional training were also on the rise. The study shows that there appeared energetic and ambitious clergymen who were focused mostly on missionary ministration. The reasons why some groups of clergy were moved to Tobolsk North varied including striving for promotion as well as punishment for offences. Some characteristic features of the northern parishes are remoteness from administrative centers, slow modernization processes, close connections of church and governmental institutions. The article suggests that the religious policy of the Russian empire in the north of Western Siberia became the major part of the government course of action which was aimed at the integration of aboriginals into the Russian socio-cultural environment.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):57-66
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THE SEAL IN CULTURE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER (THE END OF XII - THE BEGINNING OF XIV CENTURIES)
Bayduzh D.V.
Abstract
This paper is about seals using in the Teutonic Order in a wide historical and cultural context, from their appearance in a corporation chanceries until transfer of the central administration in Marienburg (1309) and the followed administrative transformations. The paper analyzes a wide range of the problems connected to origin, use and perception of a sigillographic monuments. Appearance of the seals was caused by practical need of documents authentication in connection with growth of Order’s possession. It is determined that corporate Statutes regulated some legal aspects of their using only: designation of a group of people having the right to use it, and also the special significance given to the seals of the Grand master and the Сonvent as carriers of the higher authority. The hypothesis about a possible influence on a choice of seal images by the Order chaplains that managed chanceries is stated. The short comparative analysis of external characteristics of the seals in different regions of Order activity with other military orders, first of all an Order of Saint John, showed dominance of the wax and anonymous seals in particular. Here is shown the informative potential of the sigillographic monuments as important and many-sided historical source. First of all it concerns a role of the seals as a most important tool of an official self-representation of the Teutonic Order’s administration in the 13th century and emblematic system. It is confirmed by the number of the remained monuments and richness of their iconography.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):67-75
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THE JUSTICES OF PEACE OF ANGLO-SCOTTISH BORDER, 1528-1536
Beltser A.A.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the work of Northumberland and Cumberland local government in 1528-1536. The period 1528-1536 was one of the richest of events in the history of the royal policy towards anglo-scottish borderlands. It included the restoration of aristocratic families of Percy and Dacre power, war with Scotland, removing of William, Lord Dacre from the post of Warden of the West Marches. These events must have had an influence on work of commission of peace, the backbone of Tudor local government. The subject of this article is to study changes in personnel and scope of commission of peace of Northumberland and Cumberland. As the analyses show, the number of justices of peace rose to 36-39 in Northumberland and 25-31 in Cumberland. There were some groups in peace commission: the officers of central and border administration, justices of assizes and local nobility and gentry. The members of Duke of Richmond’s Council comprised a significant part of justices of peace. The personnel of peace commission demonstrate the strong positions of Henry Percy, the 6th Earl of Northumberland and his entourage not only in Northumberland, but also in Cumberland. William, Lord Dacre, didn’t acquire the same degree of authority and influence as his father, Thomas, Lord Dacre of Gillsland. The predominance of strangers in the peace commissions of border shires lead to the scarcity of justices who could attend sessions and dealt with local problems regularly. So, as show this research the changes in royal policy towards methods of government of borderlands didn’t modify the ultimate characteristics of local peace commissions: irregularity of renewal, scarcity of aborigine personnel of justices of peace, a lot of justices, derived from another shires and central administration.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):75-80
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IRISH INTELLECTUAL IN FRENCH KINGDOM OF THE IX-TH CENTURY: SEDULIUS SCOTUS AND HIS TREATISE «ON CHRISTIAN RULERS»
Gladkov A.K.
Abstract
The article discusses the development of Carolingian political thought of the IX century, that’s why special attention is payed to the analysis of the original Latin treatise «On the Christian rulers» («De rectoribus christianis»), written by the famous Irish thinker, an intellectual and a poet Sedulius Scottus as a call for peace and unity. The work, in the spirit of so-called «King’s Mirrors» has several levels of meaning, each of which corresponds to particular author's purposes. The question arises of whom this work was addressed to and what is the main purpose of creating the literary monument. The researcher hypothesizes that the treatise «On the Christian rulers», written in the period of the sharp confrontation between Lothar I, Charles I the Bald and Louis the German II, is dedicated to Lothar. Moreover, for the first time in world historiography the exact date of its creation is pronounced - 853. Considering the treatise «On the Christian rulers» in the historical and political context of the Frankish reality of the IX century, in the light of complex configurations of church-state and potestarian relations, Dr. A.K. Gladkov proposes to consider the work by Sedulius Scottus first of all as a call for peace, as an intellectual work, full of ancient and early medieval images and rhetorical figures, imbued mostly by high pacifistic pathos.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):80-84
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«THEY WILL NOT SUFFER WHILE HABITUATING TO SUBORDINATION AND JUSTICE»: PARTICIPATION OF THE KAZAKHS IN THE ORENBURG BOUNDARY COMMISSION (1799-1869)
Gorbunova S.V.
Abstract
This article debates the participation of the Kazakhs in the activities of the Orenburg Boundary Commission - the main authority in charge of relations with the Kazakhs Junior Horde in the first half and in the middle of the XIX century. Indirect control and management was one of the ways to integrate the national remote regions in the Empire, and such control was a synthesis of the local traditional political and legal forms with the similar Russian forms, followed by a gradual displacement of the local laws and regulations. The system of border management is the most typical manifestation of such changes. Border authorities consisted of the representatives of the vassal territories and the Russian administration, resolving mutual claims and disputes on a parity basis. The Orenburg Boundary Commission acted like this authority in relations with the Kazakhs. The representatives of the Kazakhs, first chosen by the Khans and Khan’s council, had to defend the interests of Kazakhs held liable for crimes against “native” Russian nationals, and to participate in the resolution of civil disputes (commercial, land-related, etc.) that used to arise at the Russian-Kazakh border. Over time, the Kazakh deputies evolved into officials, appointed and dismissed by the Russian authorities, but their main functions were anyway preserved. Since the middle of the 20-ies, only Kazakh Sultans were assigned as the officers of the Orenburg Boundary Commission, and being well-educated, and at the top of the steppe herders society, they now could work on a par with the Russian councilors - many of them were graduates of the Neplyuev Orenburg military school. Not always, and not all Kazakh deputies could perform their functions effectively - some of them behaved as extortioners, some supported the rebel sultans. However, the mere presence of the Kazakh representatives increased the value of the Boundary Commission when resolving the disputes, and it could act as an arbitration body, and the authority protecting the interests of the Kazakhs in all conflicts with the Russian frontaliers, Cossacks and Bashkirs.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):85-91
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NATIONAL HISTORY FOR EXPORT: THE CASE OF UKRAINE
Drokonova O.N.
Abstract
The article examines the phenomenon of Ukrainian national «history for export», emerged through the efforts of the representatives of the Ukrainian Diaspora in the United States, Canada and Western Europe. Its aim is to identify the key topics and trends of Ukrainian history, written in the Diaspora environment and influencing the formation of national identity and trajectories of further development of the ethnic community. After analyzing a number of sources created in the last hundred years, the author comes to the conclusion that the chronological and geographical regularities of Ukrainian studies are closely connected. «The Ukrainian question», understood as the growth of publication activity on the topic, actualized in those regions, which were preparing for confrontation with the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union. Therefore, until 1945 it was Germany, Austria-Hungary and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe occupied by Hitler. And in the second half of the XX century that were the countries of anti-Soviet bloc of the Cold war. In an effort to present the Ukrainian nation and its history in the best, and, at the same time deserving of compassion light, the authors of Ukrainian «history for export» tried to replace the history of Ancient Rus’ by the history of Ukraine, demonized the theme of «famine-genocide» of 1932-33, denied the involvement of the OUN and UIA in the Holocaust and the destruction of the poles, mythologized the heroic achievements of dubious historical personalities and stated claims for the world famous public figures and academics, declaring them to be Ukrainians.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):91-100
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RUSSOPHOBIA IN LORD PALMERSTON’S POLITICAL ACTIVITIES
Zholudov M.V.
Abstract
The article discusses Russian-British rivalry for dominance in the Balkans and in the Middle East region jyst before the Crimean War (1853-1856). The purpose of the paper is to show that Britain's entry into the war on the side of the Ottoman Empire was primarily dictated by the geopolitical interests of the British commerce and industry. The article stresses the role of one of the most prominent statesmen, Lord Palmerston in shaping British anti-Russian policy in «Eastern question». In the Russian historiography was generally considered diplomatic activity of the Lord directly during the Crimean War. The article deals with the initial period of his career and the formation of Palmerston’s views on «the Eastern question» (1830-1840-s). Sources of studies are unpublished material of the Archive of foreign policy of the Russian Empire, published reports on the debates of the British Parliament, speeches of a diplomat, diplomatic correspondence, the British press materials. Analysis of the sources of the author's work led to the following conclusions. Firstly, Lord Palmerston had a considerable personal influence on the foreign policy of Great Britain in the «Eastern question» in the 1830-1850-s. Thanks to his efforts, the country entered into the Crimean War on the side of the Ottoman Empire, which was one of the main reasons for the defeat of Russia in the war. Secondly, the basis of the anti-Russian foreign policy doctrine of Palmerston formed back in the 1830-s., when he served as Foreign Minister of Great Britain. Lord saw the intransigence of the Anglo-Russian geopolitical conflicts in the Middle East region, defended the interests of trade and industry of Great Britain. Thirdly, Palmerston has used new methods of diplomatic work, such as reliance on public opinion of the country and the extensive use of the media as a powerful tool to implement its foreign policy. It took personal part in the organization of anti-Russian campaign in the run-up to and during the Crimean War. It can be considered one of the pioneers of information wars in the history of world politics. Fourthly, Palmerston has actively opposed the intervention of the monarch in the process of formation of the foreign policy of Great Britain. He pursued an independent foreign policy. In those years, when the Lord was Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Crown was almost completely excluded from participation in the external affairs of the country.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):100-107
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THE POPULAR MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND IN THE REIGN OF CHARLES II STUART (1660-1685)
Labutina T.L.
Abstract
Article is devoted to studying of people's movements in England during Stuarts’ Restoration, mainly in Charles II's rule (1660-1685). The purpose of this work consists in the analysis of the reasons, identifications of driving forces of performances of a people at large. The author also aims to trace dynamics of development of people's movements. The materials remained in «Calendars of State Papers. Domestic Series», «Journals of House of Lords» of the 17th century, certificates of the Venetian ambassadors, eyewitnesses of the events placed in «Calendars of State Papers and Manuscripts» from archives of Italy and also memoirs literature (J. Evelyn) were sources for the research. The article shows how the social, economic and religious policy which was carried out by Charles II Stuart’s government being equitable to interests of the mighty of this world caused discontent of people at large in England. The reasons of anti-government protests of workers (a lack of means of livelihood, the high prices of provisions, heavy taxes, unemployment, poverty, religious persecutions) are ascertained. The attention is also paid to the characteristic of people's movements of the Restoration period. During that period the pre-proletariat of England along with peasants begins to play more and more significant role. The author comes to conclusion that though people's movements had unorganized, spontaneous and separate character, nevertheless, they gradually loosened foundations of the Stuart’s monarchy and accelerated events of Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):107-112
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THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE PARTICIPANTS OF THE BATTLE OF MORTIMER’S CROSS 2 FEBRUARY 1461
Prazdnikov A.G.
Abstract
The study of the social composition of participants in one of the battles of the War of the Roses in England is the aim of the article. Although the events of this conflict is known in sufficient detail, the main discussion issue is the impact of wars on society and the involvement of representatives of different social groups. Its solution is possible by drawing up of the «collective biographies» using the method of prosopography. The study of the social composition of participants in individual battle is one step in achieving this goal. Information about the participants of the battle contains mostly in narratives (Short English Chronicle, Gregory’s Chronicle, Annales and Itinerarium of William Worcester). Their information was compared with official sources (Rotuli Parliamentorum, Close Rolls, Patent Rolls, Fine Rolls). The result was a set the names of 35 people who participated in the battle, 20 of them fought on the side of Lancaster and 15 on the side of York. The conclusions can be divided into three parts. First, the relationship that existed between the adherents of each side of the conflict were established. Three earls and two lords - the representatives of secular nobility, commanded armies in battle. A core group of known participants of the battle were represented by the knights and squires (20). We can talk about the basic motives of choice of the conflict parties, when it was possible to reconstruct the biographical information of these people. There are a personal relationship with the lords, kinship and marital ties. The majority of the gentry occupied a significant position in their counties, therefore, in opposing the armies they were supposed to play the role of middle and minor officers. Secondly, territorial structure of the group was considered. We cannot talk about a clear territorial belonging of the gentry groups in the Mortimer’s Cross, contrary to the research propositions. Although representatives of Wales prevailed on the side of the Earl of Pembroke and the Earl of Wiltshire (Lancasters), and many representatives of Herefordshire were among the supporters of the Earl of March (York), natives of these regions (or related persons) were in the ranks of the opposing armies. Third, models of socio-political participation of gentry in the preceding and subsequent periods of the Wars of the Roses were studied. Among the majority of people only once made the choice of the party on which side they fought, not changing it.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):112-116
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THE WOMEN'S MOVEMENT FOR CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (second half of XIX - beginning of XX centuries)
Savelyeva A.V.
Abstract
The article is devoted to one of the topical problems in modern historical scholarship - the women's movement for civil and political rights in the United States in the second half of the XIX century the importance of the topic lies in the fact that now greatly increased interest in women's history. Domestic and foreign historians doing research on various aspects of women's struggle for their rights. This is because the position of women in society is an acute social problem from the standpoint of legal norms and moral principles. The individual interest of the American women's movement, which was the subject of this study. The present study is based on documentary materials which are located on the official website of «Library of Congress» and contain information about the leaders of the women's movement in the United States, their ideological views about the methods of struggle of American women for civil and political rights, etc. Separate attention is paid to the analysis of texts of documents that have been developed in the process of work of the various congresses of members of the women's movement («Declaration of Sentiments«, etc.). Work with these materials was carried out by using General scientific research methods: description, analysis and comparative method, as well as with the use of special methods of historical research: historical-comparative method and cultural-semiotic approach. During the study, it was determined that the women's movement began in the U.S. in the first half of the XIX century with the strengthening of women's struggle for their rights in the second half of the XIX century, influenced by economic, ethno-cultural and ideological factors. The work also investigated the causes of the intensification of women's movements, analyzes the social basis and the nature of philosophy American activists (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, etc.). The results of the study enable us to reconstruct some aspects of the women's movement in the United States in the second half of the XIX century.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):117-122
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NEW SITE OF THE IIIrd-IInd CENTURIES BC ON THE LEFT BANK OF THE LOWER DNIESTER REGION
Sinika V.S.
Abstract
The article publishes and analyzes materials of the IIIrd-IInd centuries BC found in the 2015-2016 on the multilayered settlement Parkany-II on the left bank of the Lower Dniester. Published for the first time of Sinopean amphora stamp the name of astynomos Ἶφις τοῦ Ἐστιαίου fixes the Greek imports coming at the monument in the last quarter of the IIIrd century BC. Cast in bronze hooked-clasp and belt hook clearly supports their affiliation to the material culture of the Scythians. These items have enough analogies in the Scythian monuments not only in Dniester Region, but also in Bug Region, Dnieper Region, in Crimea and in the Don Region. The relationship of these finds and the cultural layer of the IIIrd-IInd centuries BC of Parkany-II settlement and the synchronous Scythian burial complexes, studied between Parcani village, Slobozyea district, and Bychok village, Grigoriopol district, more than a hundred years ago, is obvious. This is evidenced by the recently published materials from the Scythian cemetery of the IIIrd-IInd centuries BC near Glinoe village, Slobodzeya district, where was found the closest analogy to the hooked-clasp from the settlement Parkany-II. In addition, a hook of similar construction comes from barrow 156, studied near Parkany at the end of the XIXth century. This allows us to conclude, firstly, that on the left bank of the Lower Dniester, new archaeological macrocomplex of the IIIrd-IInd centuries BC was revealed functioned in IIIrd-IInd centuries BC, and secondly, the new archaeological macrocomplex of the IIIrd-IInd centuries BC, which at the moment is not the only one of its kind. Similar macrocomplexes are already known. One of them is located 31,5 km south-east of the settlement Parkany-II, near the village Glinoe, Slobodzeya district, and includes a cemetery (studied in 1995-2012) and a settlement on the river Krasnaia (stationary has not been studied). A second similar macrocomplex is located 25 km south-east of the settlement Parkany-II, near Chobruchi village, and consists of a settlement with a layer of the IIIrd-IInd centuries BC (excavations of 1993-2014) and synchronous Scythian barrows. In total Materials obtained during the excavations and surveys of these sites do not make no doubt that the Scythian steppe culture in the Dniester region is not only not ceased to exist at the end of the IVth. Century BC or in the first third of the IIIrd century BC, as previously thought, but also continued to grow, at least until the end of the IInd century BC.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):122-129
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GREAT BRITAIN’S MIGRATION POLICY IN 2010-2015
Yakubova L.A., Badalov M.F.
Abstract
The given article touches upon the basic statements of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland migration policy in 2010-2015 as well as the peculiarities of political struggle towards the migrant issues. During 2010-2015 in the UK, as in most European Union countries, the increase in the proportion of immigrants and their descendants in the total population of the country had been recorded; in this aspect, the attention of political and social institutions to this very issue has steadily increased. The UK immigration cluster population in the period analyzed is quite diverse and can be represented by the following groups: people coming from European countries, which have become full-fledged members of the European Union in 2004; foreign students; people fleeing from persecution in their home country; people arriving from outside of the European Union (Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand). In 1997, with the advent of the Labour Party led by Tony Blair to power, net immigration amounted to 107 thousand people a year, and in 2007 the figure was already 330 thousand. Man. In 1997-2007 net immigration was about 3 million, which was equivalent to 5% of the UK population. About 2/3 of them were not the European Union citizens. Problems and difficulties associated with heavy influx of migrants to the UK during 2010-2015 led a course on tightening of the state migration policy. These measures included a significant tightening of tests on the English language skills by immigrants; review about 300 licenses of educational institutions (mainly colleges) issued bogus visitors visas to study; decline in the arrival of experts allowances (including qualified); during 2010-2012 500 UK language schools have lost the right to sponsor foreign students, many of whom came to the training, and then tried to stay in the country, get a job, and subsequently residence permits. However, these measures were of secondary nature in relation to the primary needs of the British economy in a constant inflow of labor force, and did not contribute to solving the problems with the integration of immigrants and their descendants. In the UK there were institutions that were interested in preservation of intense immigration flow. Local authorities in the limited funding could attract local residents on low-paid occupations and were forced to hire immigrants. The study is based on the analysis of the original English-language sources - the election manifesto of the Conservative and Labour parties, materials statistical compilations «United Kingdom: Migrants».
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(2):129-135
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