No 4 (2015)

Articles
Stalin's policy towards the «punished peoples» (1940s - 1950s): genocide, assimilation or a «population policy»?
Ivanov А.S.
Abstract
The study is an attempt to comprehend the essence of Stalin's policy in respect of the «punished peoples». The study of historical research sources speaks for the diverse and often polar views concerning deportation and special settlements of those times. The author points out a number of activities arranged by the authorities suggesting that deportation was not a way of genocide or marginalization of the population. Such activities include allocating special food and manufactured goods; adopting a number of acts aimed at improving the financial state of the repressed population; reuniting the deported families with the approval of the NKVD; conducting ideological and cultural activities and events, school and industrial training; preserving pre-deportation status of Kalmyk communists and Komsomol members enabling them to join the Communist Party (before the 1950s) and the Komsomol (with limitations); providing jobs for skilled production workers and managers in relevant fields where their skills are required, including Communist Party organizations. This paper emphasizes that state authorities had no intention of destroying distinctive ethnic features of the Kalmyk people. Rather, the goal was to develop a community of deported people loyal to the regime. There is no accident that the authorities made efforts to reunite the uprooted families, which is a norm for a socialist society, in order to develop the «proper» social structures. There is a point in believing that the major purpose was «to develop the proper population» by means of adjusting social and class structures. In accordance with the Marxist doctrine, the working class was considered as «the carrier of socialism» and the main driving force on the way to communism. Thus, the working class was supposed to become the basis for the future classless society. Therefore, it is not surprising that over 20 years, including the years spent in special settlements (1944-1956), the number of workers increased 5 times among the Chechen, 15 times (!) among the Ingush and 2.5 times among the Kalmyk within only 5 years of living in the settlements. It becomes clear that this process was the goal of the state policy. Thus, the forced relocation of the «punished peoples» and special settlements were a set of measures to ensure the development of «proper» communities. The Soviet authorities, therefore, pursued a policy of developing a certain composition of the population, which is referred to as the «population policy» by as P. Kholkvist.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):3-8
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On two customs charters in the late XVIth century sent to the Solovetsky monastery
Kisterev S.N.
Abstract
The paper is part of a series of works studying the way customs duties changed at the territory of Russia through the period of late 15th - early 17th centuries via a comparative analysis of customs charters. Here the author studies two charters dated 1590s issued on behalf of Russian Tsars Fyodor Ivanovich and Boris Fyodorovich to control the customs duties in fiefdoms of the Solovetsky Monastery located on the banks of the White Sea. The author compares these two charters and considers the circumstances of their issue and the way the monks of the Solovetsky Monastery were related to the charters. The author uses the information contained the monastery account books of the later 17th century to illustrate the declared charters’ standards. The final conclusion confirms the analysis of customs charters discovered in Belozersk region (1497-1602), Kaluga (1621) and Kursk (1620).
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):9-14
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Chorgun village in the first half of the 20s of XXth century
Nedelkin E.V., Khapaev V.V.
Abstract
The study touches upon the history of the Chernorechye village (formerly Chorgun) located on the territory of the federal city Sevastopol in the early 20s of the XXth century. Based on archived data, this paper presents a study devoted to the development of the Soviet power, transformations in social and economic structures, and establishment of new state and public institutions in a large village of the Balaklavsky district in Sevastopol. The authors also considered the demographic processes in the village and in the Balaklavsky District and administrative changes that affected Chorgun during the given period. The paper describes the way the village population coped with the food crisis of 1921-1923. As shown in study documents, the local Soviet authorities in Chorgun had representatives of both Crimean Tatars and Russians. However, the leading positions were mainly held by Crimean Tatars in order to meet the policy of «indigenization» pursued during that period.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):15-22
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Final defeat of Kuchum (1598) in the siberian annalistic tradition
Solodkin Y.G.
Abstract
Many Siberian and all-Russian chronicles mention the final defeat of Kuchum Khan from the unit of service men in the summer of 1598. The chief dyak Savva Esipov gave a rather rhetorical account of these events and most likely through hearsay. Siberian official chroniclers of the mid - 17th century based their reports on the existing article in «Novyj letopisets», edited it and sometimes referred to oral evidence.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):23-28
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Sociocultural anthropology Yugra cities: an attempt of modern historiography
Stas’ I.N.
Abstract
The article examines major achievements of social and cultural anthropology in the history of the cities of Khanty-Mansiyk Autonomous Area - Yugra in the period of oil and gas development in Western Siberia. The author briefly characterizes the current state of the anthropology of cities as a new trend in humanities and social science and indicates that modern urban studies in Russia are conceptually and methodologically supported by the anthropological approach to the problems of urban development. However, the existing studies are clearly insufficient to characterize both historical and contemporary socio-cultural urbanization patterns in Russia and its regions. Hence, the present study of anthropology in the cities of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra in the context of oil and gas development in Western Siberia is ever more relevant. Our analysis shows that during the soviet times the works by V. Trushkov and G. Kutsev had a paramount importance for the anthropology studies of oil and gas cities. Changes in the ideological environment of post-soviet science made sociologists actively explore social and cultural environment and lifestyle in the oil and gas cities of Western Siberia. The sociologists concluded that, despite various controversies surrounding single-industry settlements, oil and gas cities had a developed urban culture and community. Works by M.G. Ganopolsky take a special place among social and cultural anthropological studies. Historical science was rather slow in understanding the importance of the anthropological approach to the problems of oil and gas development in Tyumen region. In the 2000s, local historians developed interest in studying social and cultural problems of oil and gas regions. In this respect, the conference «Man in the conditions of intensive oil and gas development of the North» held in Tyumen in 2010 became a rather crucial event for historical research of the West Siberian oil and gas industry. The event marked the changes of interests among the researches who turned from social and economic history to anthropological studies. However, historical anthropology and anthropology of the city shave not yet become a priority methodological approach in the social and humanitarian researches of oil and gas development in KhMAO - Yugra. Historians make studies of the everyday life, household and culture development. However, these studies are supplementary to the research of material, technical, social, industrial and human resource development in oil and gas regions of Western Siberia, but not independent objects of study.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):29-39
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Engaging the troops of the 1ST Belorussian front in the restoration of the national economy in Belarus during the final stage of the Great Patriotic war (fall 1943 - early 1945)
Tsys’ V.V.
Abstract
The paper identifies the stages, causes, forms of assistance provided by the troops of the 1st Belorussian front in the restoration of the national economy of Belarus during the final stage of the Great Patriotic War. The author indicates that the Red Army was involved in solving economic challenges for to a number of reasons. First, this was a decision of the Party and Soviet authorities responsible for specific economic objectives and tasks. Second, the troops had to be involved due to the social and economic situation in the areas liberated from the invaders, since a large part of the infrastructure was destroyed and the population was demoralized and unable to work. Third, the troops had time to help with economic restoration during the long period of relative calm before offensive operations. Finally, the idea coincides with the general standpoint of political and military leaders. The paper describes the types of works in redevelopment of the national economy and forms of assistance to the civilian population provided by the troops of the 1st Belorussian front, including mine clearance, restoration of roads and bridges, agricultural works, medical and veterinary services, assignation of trophy property seized during offensive operations. The data shows that spare and logistical troops of the front the ones allocated to assist in the economic redevelopment in the Belarus Republic. The author notes that the most assistance was provided in the spring of 1944. The author concludes that soldiers made a huge contribution to the economic redevelopment and restoration of social and political infrastructure of Belarus in the most difficult period after its liberation from Nazi invaders. The amount and character of works provided in no way detracted the troops from combat and military operations.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):40-49
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Palestinian readings in Western Siberia at the turn of XIX-XX century
Tsys’ O.P.
Abstract
The paper identifies the activities of the Siberian branches of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society, namely, religious and educational lecturing. The author defines the role of such activities in the cultural environment of Siberia. The branches were mainly concerned in spreading the information about the past and present situation in the Holy Land, especially about the measures to preserve the Orthodox faith in Palestine and encourage pilgrim journeys of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society. The paper shows that the organizers of the Palestine readings in Western Siberia observed the «Guiding rules for branches and departments» and other regulations. The West- Siberian branches of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society were provided with printed materials, pictures and other literature sent by the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society Council in St. Petersburg, and points out the contributions that certain members of the West-Siberian branch made, including the achievements of diocesan bishops who wrote and published their papers devoted to the Holy Land. The author have studied of annual reports submitted by Tobolsk and Tomsk branches of the Society and analyzed the target group, timing, and total number of listeners of Palestine readings over different periods. The paper gives the dynamics and geography of Palestine readings and shows that they raised interest among all social groups of the Russian, and particularly, among peasants. The author concludes that during the period under study pilgrim journeys to Palestine were no longer perceived as some extraordinary event, even though they did not become a mass phenomenon. This alternation in attitude towards pilgrimage was due to the readings and lectures and other cultural and educational activities of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):50-59
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Archaeological studies of the neolithic and chalcolithic age in Eastern and Central Kazakhstan (50s - 60s of the 20th century)
Grebenyukov V.I.
Abstract
The paper elaborates upon the early study of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic age in Eastern Kazakh- stan. The author reviews the research works devoted to this historical period in order characterize the extent to which the territory has been studied. In 1950 East-Kazakhstan expedition by the Institute of History of Material Culture, Leningrad department discovered two settlements near the villages of Malo-Krasnoyarka and Ust-Narym. Here, stationary field studies were held in the settlements of Kazakhstan for the first time. The researchers of the Neolithic age soon got interested in the archeological digs in Ust-Narym. For example, A. P. Okladnikov suggested considering Ust-Narym settlement as a link between the Neolithic age of Siberia and Caspian Sea region. It was offered to date the materials similar to the first layer in the cave of Dzhebel, considering the Neolithic stages of the Trans-Baikal, i.e. around 2500 BC. G. F. Korobkova considered that the industry of settlements was based on flake culture. This was the main thing that distinguished it from platy industries of Central Asia. This conclusion was as a keynote when defining the direction of Ust-Narym cultural ties and Siberian-Altai circle of cultures. Later it became clear that it was wrong to consider the silicic industry of Ust-Narym be based on flake culture. According to S. S. Chernikov, the settlers used 76,4% platy tools in relation to the total amount of stone tools. V. F. Seibert concluded that Ust-Narym culture was long-term, multi-layered and multifunctional. In 1962 the researchers discovered a number of man sites in Karaganda region belonging to different historic periods. Later M. N. Klapchuk published some study materials from the archeological digs. He was the first researcher studied two man sites in Central Kazakhstan, Karaganda 15 and Zelenaya Balka-4, on a permanent basis. M. N. Klapchuk developed a periodization and chronology of the Neolithic age in Central Kazakhstan and made essential stratigraphic observations at the man site Karaganda-15. However, the results of his studies met an inappropriate response among researchers of the Neolithic age in Kazakhstan and South Urals. G. N. Matyushin had quite an affirmative approach towards the periodization of layers at Karaganda-15 man site. The available data allowed the researcher to synchronize the materials of Karaganda-15 man site with the fifth layer in the cave of Dzhebel.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):60-66
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Discussions on causes of English revolution of the XVIIth century in contemporary british historiography
Yerokhin V.N.
Abstract
The article deals with approaches to comprehension of XVIIth century Revolution in England in contemporary British historical science. At the present moment, as the article shows, scientific influence and recognition of progressive approaches to comprehension of the English revolution represented by liberal and Marxist historians have considerably lessened. Liberal and Marxist paradigms are also striving for broad generalizations, and such traits of research became less convincing for most part of British historians in 1980s. The author analyzes the peculiarities of revisionist trend in study of causes of the English Revolution and shows that the revisionist trend exerted appreciable influence on historical researches during recent decades. The author concludes that the British researchers of the English Revolution who consider specific features of historical situations and prefer an individualizing approach in understanding history turn out to be more influential.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):67-77
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Administrative arrangement of the early byzantine Taurica: numismatic evidence
Choref M.M.
Abstract
This study examined numismatic material as means of dealing with unexplored issues of the Byzantine Taurica history. The objects of the study are Chamnu-Burun treasure and rare coins casted in Cherson and put into circulation under Basil I the Macedonian. It should be noted that they became the objects of research for a reason. The point is that the coins created on the barbarian territory are more valuable from the historical and numismatic viewpoints. First of all, this was the territory of the Byzantine Empire. Second, it is important to appreciate our forerunners’ progress in researching this treasure, as their findings have become the base for the theory that there was a state in the mountains of Tauric Peninsula in the early Middle Ages. The Byzantine coins of the Tauric cast are valuable as well, because they are a most widespread artifact. When studying the coins, we applied the strategy developed for the Byzantine coins of Cherson casted at different times. Moreover, considering new findings there was a need to justify our position about the attribution of Cherson- Byzantine cast coin with the symbol of «B» on the head side and with a cross surrounded by an inscription on the tail side. The numismatic research has been pursued and findings were verified with the results of written, the archaeological and sphragistic sources. We have held a numismatic study and verified its results with written, archeological and shragistic data. Based on the results of our study, we conclude that Chamnu-Burun treasure could be connected with the weakening of Byzantine influence in Taurica. The only original coin was casted in Cherson under Basil I the Macedonian. We believe that the results may appeal to both numismatists and historians studying the Byzantine Empire and Taurica in the early Middle Ages.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):78-89
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Public funding of the social policy under Tony Blair’s labour government in 1997-2001
Yakubova L.A.
Abstract
The study touches upon the issue of the state budget social welfare expenditure by Tony Blair’s Labour government in the United Kingdom in 1997-2001. Based on the budgetary papers from the Treasury, the author has identified key areas of «New Labour» social program financed by the government, including employment policy, family support and child welfare, healthcare, and education. The author has studied the amount of public funding for major social expenses in the period from 1997 to 2001. These social policy items are state-financed and have one common goal - the transformation of the «Welfare State» by means of reasonable use of public funds. The fiscal policy of Tony Blair’s Labour government has become a logical continuation of a «Third Way» position, which is serving as the ideological platform of «New Labour».
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(4):90-94
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