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by Asd fg (05.10.2021)

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Furnace or also often referred to as a combustion furnace is a device used for heating. The name comes from the Latin Fornax, oven. Sometimes people also call it a kiln.

Furnaces themselves are often analogous to furnaces as industrial purposes which are used for many things, such as the manufacture of ceramics, extraction of metals from ores (smelting) or in oil refineries and other chemical plants, for example as a heat source for fractional distillation columns.

The most common fuels for modern furnaces are natural gas, including LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), fuel oil, coal or wood. In some cases electrical resistance heating is also often used as a heat source, if only the electricity costs are low.

Almost all furnaces use liquid fuel, gas fuel or electricity as their energy input.

Induction and arc furnaces use electricity to melt steel and cast iron.
Melting furnaces for non-ferrous raw materials use oil as fuel.
Furnaces are burned with fuel oil almost entirely using furnace oil, mainly for reheating and heat treatment of materials.

Light diesel oil (LDO) is used in the furnace when sulfur is not desired. Ideally the furnace should heat as much material as possible to a uniform temperature with as little fuel and labor as possible. The key to efficient furnace operation lies in complete combustion of fuel with minimal excess air. - Furnaces operate at relatively low efficiency (as low as 7 percent) compared to other combustion equipment such as boilers (with efficiencies of more than 90 percent)

This is due to the high operating temperature in the furnace. For example, a furnace that heats materials to a temperature of 1200 Deg.C will emit flue gases at a temperature of 1200 Deg.C or more resulting in significant heat loss through the chimney.

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